Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Nuclear Battery: the Future of Nuclear Industry

NASA has recently used nuclear battery instead of solar panels in a new rover, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL).

"The rover isn’t powered by a nuclear reactor but the insulated Pu-238 generates so much heat that it actually glows a dull red in the dark. This excess warmth will be put to good use, generating approximately 110 watts of electricity through thermoelectric lead tellurite –- a material that creates electricity when there is a temperature gradient. This power can keep the rover chugging along for years if needed, though MSL’s current mission is only scheduled to last 23 months."

Last February 23, 2011, Eben Harrell wrote an article at Ecocentric with the title "The First Nuclear Battery?"  He wrote:"My story focused on the smallest of the small reactors–the 25 megawatt Hyperion Power Module (a.k.a the nuclear battery) which Denver-based Hyperion Power hopes will soon fuel subdivisions, mining operations, military bases, hospitals, desalination plants and even cruise liners around the world soon."

He was referring to his article in Time Magazine where he pointed out the following: "Designed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory spin-off Hyperion Power Generation Inc., the nuclear battery — so called because it is cheap, small and easily transportable — is about the size of a refrigerator, compared with a 50-ft.-tall traditional reactor. It produces 25 megawatts of electricity — approximately a fortieth the output of a large atomic power-plant reactor. While not quite compact enough for cars, the battery, known as the Hyperion Power Module, has been designed to power subdivisions or towns with fewer than 20,000 homes, as well as military bases, mining operations, desalination plants and even commercial ships, including cruise liners."

 "Nuclear batteries run off of the continuous radioactive decay of certain elements. These incredibly long-lasting batteries are still in the theoretical and developmental stage of existence, but they promise to provide clean, safe, almost endless energy. They have been designed for personal use as well as for civil engineering, aeronautics, and medical treatments.
The almost magical production of electricity in nuclear batteries is made possible by the process of betavoltaics. Through this technology, the electrons that radioactive isotopes regularly lose due to decay can be harnessed and directed into a stream of electricity. A semiconductor, possibly made from silicon, catches the flying electrons and directs them into a steady power source. Even a small amount of radioactive material will provide a charge for a very long time before it expires."

"Nuclear submarines use nuclear reactors, steam turbines and reduction ge­aring to drive the main propeller shaft, which provides the forward and reverse thrust in the water (an electric motor drives the same shaft when docking or in an emergency).
Submarines also need electric power to operate the equipment on board. To supply this power, submarines are equipped with diesel engines that burn fuel and/or nuclear reactors that use nuclear fission. Submarines also have batteries to supply electrical power. Electrical equipment is often run off the batteries and power from the diesel engine or nuclear reactor is used to charge the batteries. In cases of emergency, the batteries may be the only source of electrical power to run the submarine."

"The Hyperion Power Module is a 70 MWt/25 MWe lead-bismuth cooled reactor concept using 20% enriched uranium nitride fuel. The reactor was originally conceived as a potassium-cooled self-regulating 'nuclear battery' fuelled by uranium hydride. However, in 2009, Hyperion Power changed the design to uranium nitride fuel and lead-bismuth cooling to expedite design certification. This now classes it as a fast neutron reactor, without moderation. Hyperion claims that the ceramic nitride fuel has superior thermal and neutronic properties compared with uranium oxide. It would be installed below ground level.
The reactor vessel housing the core and primary heat transfer circuit is about 1.5 metres wide and 2.5 metres high. It is easily portable, sealed and has no moving parts. A secondary cooling circuit transfers heat to an external steam generator. The reactor module is designed to operate for electricity or process heat (or cogeneration) continuously for up to 10 years without refuelling. Another reactor module could then take its place in the overall plant. The old module, with fuel burned down to about 15% enrichment, would be put in dry storage at site to cool for up to two years before being returned to the factory.
In March 2010, Hyperion notified the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission that it planned to submit a design certification application in 2012. The company says it has many expressions of interest for ordering units. In September 2010, the company signed an agreement with Savannah River Nuclear Solutions to possibly build a demonstration unit at the Department of Energy site there. (Over 1953-1991, this was where a number of production reactors for weapons plutonium and tritium were built and run.) Hyperion has said it plans to build a prototype by 2015, possibly with uranium oxide fuel if the nitride is not then available."


Thursday, December 22, 2011

Satellite Hacking

Twelve years ago I tried to study satellite hacking just for curiosity sake.  But I never attempted to hack any satellite.  Based on my research, it is very difficult and it takes time (and money) to do it. Today we commonly use Internet satellite dish, GPS-enabled gadgets, satellite TV, and satellite phones.

Recently, there was a report that chinese hackers attacked the U.S. satellites.

China denied the report http://geektech.in/archives/6423

Here is the news - An International Conference entitled: "SATELLITE 2012: The Center of the Satellite Communications Universe" will be held at Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, D.C. on March 12 - 15, 2012

Download the conference brochure here via satellite: http://accessintelligence.imirus.com/Mpowered/book/vvsb12/i1/p1

Satellite refers to any object suspended in space that orbit the Earth.  Moon is a natural satellite created by God. Artificial satellites were made by man.

"Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.
Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control."


For real hackers (as opposed to computer criminals who call themselves hackers), satellite hacking is about building your own, getting them launched, and using them. Furthermore, believe it or not, the world's first communications satellite was built by a group of radio amateurs. They were real hackers in the truest sense of the word."

"Based on what I know, hacking satellite is same as hacking computer system. That is, just keep guessing the password. Satellite company usually set a maximum number of times for password inputs and encrypts the password during the transmission. This makes the hacking satellite extremely hard. So hacking satellite might be an inside job or Tamil Tiger hacked the Intersat's computer system first, then retrieved the passwords and protocol. Then hacked the satellite." - Larry Young (June 28, 2009 Comment)

Watch the video entitled: "Satellite Hacking For Fun And Profit (Blackhat 2009)"


Download the ebook at:


Tuesday, December 20, 2011

The Wise Men from the East and the Star of the King of the Jews

 Who are the wise men from the east that visited Christ when He was two years old?

What is the star which they have seen from the east that appeared again in Jerusalem that guided them to a house in Bethlehem?

Why they just suddenly appear and disappear in history?

What is the purpose of the wise men and of the star?

What they really teach us to this present day?

What makes them so elusive and mysterious even to this postmodern time?

These are just some of the questions that will be answered in the following quotations taken from websites that deal specifically with our topic.

"The Magi who worshipped Jesus. The first word translated “wise men” is the Greek word magos. This is the same as magus, an old Persian word equivalent to the chakam of the Old Testament (above). Magi is the plural of magus.

The first and only mention of magi in the New Testament is in the story of Jesus Christ's young life. In Matthew 2, it is recorded that they came from the East to Jerusalem looking for “he that is born King of the Jews.” These were magi, a priestly caste of learned men. The only known Magian priests East of Palestine (at the time of Christ's birth), were in ancient Media, Persia, Assyria, and Babylonia. There is no proof of what country these men came from, and there is no consensus among the early Church Fathers.

Although the word magic is derived from the same root as magi, and magi are generally associated with occult studies, even in our modern world. However, these magi seem to be different. There is no indication that they practiced sorcery or claimed magical powers. Their recorded conduct is sincere and worshipful. They appear to have researched the Old Testament and believed its prophecies about the Messiah. They apparently gained nothing material from their long journey.

The record does not specifically say that there were three, or that they were kings; this is assumed by some from the number and types of gifts that were given to Jesus (gold, frankincense, and myrrh). The gifts reflected the aspects of Christ's nature: gold to a king, myrrh to one who will die, and incense, as homage to a God. None of the Church Fathers suggested that these men were kings, but there was obvious wealth involved. It is possible that the wealth was theirs, or that they were religious or scholarly envoys of royalty in a distant land.

These magi did not arrive until possibly almost two years after Christ's birth, certainly sometime after his presentation in the Temple (Luke 2:22-39). (Immediately after the visit of the magi, Mary and Joseph fled with Jesus to Egypt, where they probably stayed till after Herod's death in 4 B.C.)

There is no mention of camels or any mode of transportation in the biblical record. There is also no mention of their names. The traditional names adopted in the West are Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar . The Syrian tradition uses the names Gushnasaph, Hormisdas and Larvandad. Others use Hormizdah, Perozdh and Yazdegerd, or Basanater, Karsudan and Hor, or various other names.

A quite different type of learned man is referred to in Acts 8:9 which describes the evil Simon who practiced “sorcery.” The Greek word was mageuo, meaning to practice magic, use sorcery. Mageuo is derived from the same root as magi.

In Acts 13:6-12 a false prophet named Barjesus or Elymas is described as a magos, translated in all versions as “sorcerer” or “magician.”

Note: Isaiah 60:6 mentions kings coming to praise the Lord with gold and incense. However, in context, it is clear that the prophecies involved in this section of Isaiah have not yet come to pass. Also, the land of Sheba mentioned does not fit the record; the magi came from the East. The magi who came to the young Jesus were a precursor of the fulfillment, but not the fulfillment itself. If you read all the prophecy, it is clear that these things have not fully happened yet. Isaiah 60:1-9, 19-20 are referring to events in the Millennium."

"Heralding the birth of Jesus the Christ, there was a sequence of close encounters between the planets Mars, Jupiter, and Venus as well as Regulus, the chief star in the constellation of Leo which is associated with Judah. The events started a year before Jesus' birth. Jesus himself was most likely born late September of 2 B.C. at which time Caesar Augustus had decreed a taxation in honor of his silver jubilee on the throne of Rome.

None of these events, indeed no natural event, can match the Bible's account of the star. Those characteristics can only be satisfied by an angel or special miracle. It seems that the wise men saw the angel or miraculous star first in their native land, in the eastern sky, probably in the morning. Possibly the star came from the sun (arising out of Jacob) a year or two before the actual birth of Jesus. The wise men visited the child Jesus in December a year or two later, being led from Jerusalem to Bethlehem by the star they'd seen in the east. At the time of their visit, Jesus was in a house (not a stable). The reason for their visit was to worship Jesus, but in the process they financed the family's flight to and return from Egypt.

We conclude that the most likely candidate for the star was a special miracle, an angelic star."

The Star and the Wise Men

A Sermon
(No. 1698)
Delivered on Lord's-Day Morning, December 24th, 1882, 

At the Metropolitan Tabernacle, Newington

"Now Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews'? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy."—Matthew 2:1-2, 9-10.

SEE, DEAR FRIENDS, the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ even in his state of humiliation! He is born of lowly parents, laid in a manger, and wrapped in swaddling bands; but, lo! the principalities and powers in the heavenly places are in commotion. First, one angel descends to proclaim the advent of the new-born King and suddenly there is with him a multitude of the heavenly host singing glory unto God. Nor was the commotion confined to the spirits above; for in the heavens which overhang this card, there is a stir. A star is deputed on behalf of all the stars, as if he were the envoy and plenipotentiary of all worlds to represent them before their King. This star is put in commission to wait upon the Lord, to be his herald to men afar off, his usher to conduct them to his presence, and his body-guard to sentinel his cradle. Earth, too, is stirred. Shepherds have come to pay the homage of simple-minded ones: with all love and joy they bow before the mysterious child; and after them from afar come the choice and flower of their generation, the most studious minds of the age. Making a long and difficult journey, they too at last arrive, the representatives of the Gentiles. Lo! the kings of Seba and Sheba offer gifts—gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Wise men, the leaders of their peoples, bow down before him, and pay homage to the Son of God. Wherever Christ is he is honorable. "Unto you that believe he is honor." In the day of small things, when the cause of God is denied entertainment, and is hidden away with things which are despised, it is still most glorious. Christ, though a child, is still King of kings; though among the oxen, he is still distinguished by his star.
Beloved friends, if wise men of old came to Jesus and worshipped, should not we come also? My intense desire this morning is that we all may pay homage to him of whom we sing, "Unto us a child is born; unto us a son is given." Let those of us who have long worshipped, worship anew with yet lowlier reverence and intenser love. And God grant-oh, that he would grant it!—that some who are far off from him spiritually, as the Magi were far off locally, may come to-day and ask, "Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have come to worship him." May feet that have been accustomed to broad roads, but unaccustomed to the narrow path, this day pursue that way till they see Jesus, and how before him with all their hearts, finding salvation in him. These wise men came naturally, traversing the desert; let us come spiritually, leaving our sins. These were guided by the sight of a star; let us be guided by faith in the divine Spirit, by the teaching of his word and all those blessed lights which the Lord uses to conduct men to himself. Only let us come to Jesus. It was well to come unto the babe Jesus, led by the feeble beams of a star; you shall find it still more blessed to come to him now that he is exalted in the highest heavens, and by his own light reveals his own perfect glory. Delay not, for this day he cries, "Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest."
This morning let us try to do three things. First, let us gather light from this star; secondly, let us gather wisdom from those wise men; and thirdly, let us act as wise men helped by our own particular star.
I. First, then, LET US GATHER LIGHT FROM THIS STAR. May the Spirit of the Lord enable us so to do.
I suppose you have each one his own imagination as to what this star was. It would seem to have been altogether supernatural, and not a star, or a comet of the ordinary kind. It was not a constellation, nor a singular conjunction of planets: there is nothing in the Scriptures to support such a conjecture. In all probability it was not a star in the sense in which we now speak of stars: for we find that it moved before the wise men, then suddenly disappeared, and again shone forth to move before them. It could not have been a star in the upper spheres like others, for such movements would not have been possible. Some have supposed that the wise men went in the direction in which the star shone forth in the heavens, and followed the changes of its position: but it could not in that case have been said that it stood over the place where the young child was. If the star was at its zenith over Bethlehem, it would have been in its zenith over Jerusalem too; for the distance is so small that it would not have been possible to observe any difference in the position of the star in the two places. It must have been a star occupying quite another sphere from that in which the planets revolve. We believe it to have been a luminous appearance in mid-air; probably akin to that which led the children of Israel through the wilderness, which was a cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night. Whether it was seen in the daylight or not we cannot tell. Chrysostom and the early fathers are wonderfully positive about many things which Scripture leaves in doubt, but as these eminent divines drew upon their imagination for their facts, we are not under bonds to follow them. They aver that this star was so bright as to be visible all day long. If so, we can imagine the wise men travelling day and night; but if it could be seen only by night, the picture before us grows far more singular and weird—like as we see these easterns quietly pursuing their star-lit way, resting perforce when the sun was up, but noiselessly hurrying at night through slumbering lands. These questions are not of much importance to us, and therefore we will not dwell long upon them.
Only here is a first lesson: if it should ever be that men should fail to preach the gospel, God can conduct souls to his Son by a star. Ah! say not only by a star, but by a stone, a bird, a blade of grass, a drop of dew.

"Remember that Omnipotence
Has servants everywhere."

Therefore, despond not when you hear that one minister has ceased to preach the gospel, or that another is fighting against the viral truth of God. Their apostasy shall be to their own loss rather than to the hurt of Jesus and his church; and, sad though it be to see the lamps of the sanctuary put out, yet God is not dependent upon human lights, he is the Shekinah light of his own holy place. Mortal tongues, if they refuse to preach his word, shall have their places supplied by books in the running brooks and sermons in stones. The beam shall cry out of the wall, and the timber shall answer it. When chief priests and scribes have all gone out of the way, the Lord puts stars into commission, and once more in very deed the heavens are telling the glory of God, and the firmament is showing his handiwork. Sooner than lack speakers for the incarnate God, mountains and hills shall learn eloquence and break forth into testimony. Jehovah's message shall be made known to the utmost ends of the earth. God shall save his own elect; he shall give to Christ to see of the travail of his soul and to be satisfied. His counsel shall stand, and he will do all his pleasure. Hallelujah!
Now, when the Lord does use a star to be his minister, what is the order of his ministry? We may learn by this enquiry what kind of ministry God would have ours to be if we are stars in his right hand. We also shine as lights in the world: let us see how to do it.
We notice, first, that star-preaching is all about Christ. We do not know what the color of the star was, nor the shape of the star, nor to what magnitude it had attained; these items are not recorded, but what is recorded is of much more importance; the wise men said—"We have seen his star." Then the star which the Lord will use to lead men to Jesus must be Christ's own star. The faithful minister, like this star, belongs to Christ; he is Christ's own man in the most emphatic sense. Before we can expect to be made a blessing, dear friends, we must ourselves be blessed of the Lord. If we would cause others to belong, to Jesus, we must belong wholly to Jesus ourselves. Every beam in that star shone forth for Jesus. It was his star, always, and only, and altogether. It shone not for itself, but only as his star: as such it was known and spoken of—"we have seen his star." As I have already said, there is no note taken of any peculiarity that it had except this one, that it was the star of the King. I wish that you and I, whatever our eccentricities or personalities may be, may never make so much of them as to attract men's attention to them. May people never dwell upon our attainments or our deficiencies, but may they always observe this one thing, that we are men of God, that we are ambassadors of Christ, that we are Christ's servants, and do not attempt to shine for ourselves, or to make ourselves conspicuous; but that we labor to shine for him, that his way may be known upon earth, his saving health among all people. Brother, it is well for us to forget ourselves in our message, to sink ourselves in our Master. We know the names of several of the stars, yet they may each one envy that star which remains anonymous, but can never be forgotten because men who sought the King of Israel knew it as "his star." Though you be but a very little star, twinkling for Jesus; however feeble your light may be, be it plain that you are his star, so that if men wonder what you are, they may never wonder whose you are, for on your very forefront it shall be written, "Whose I am and whom I serve." God will not lead men to Christ by us unless we are Christ's heartily, wholly, unreservedly. In his temple our Lord uses no borrowed vessels; every bowl before the altar must be his own. It is not consistent with the glory of God for him to use borrowed vessels. He is not so poor as that comes to. This lesson is worthy of all acceptation. Are you in a hurry to preach, young man? Are you sure you are Christ's? Do you think it must be a fine thing to hold a company or people listening to your words? Have you looked at it in another light,? Have you weighed the responsibility of having to speak as Christ would have you speak, and of yielding yourself in your entire personality to the utterance of the mind of God? You must be consecrated and concentrated if you hope to be used or the Lord. If you have one ray, or ten thousand rays, all must shine with the one design of guiding men to Jesus. You have nothing now to do with any object, subject, design, or endeavor, but Jesus only: in him, and for him, and to him must you live henceforth, or you will never be chosen of the Lord to conduct either wise men or babes to Jesus. See ye well to it that perfect consecration be yours.
Note next that true star-preaching leads to Christ. The star was Christ's star itself, but it also led others to Christ. It did this very much because it moved in that direction. It is a sad thing when a preacher is like a sign-post pointing the way but never following it, on his own account. Such were those chief priests at Jerusalem: they could tell where Christ was born, but they never went to worship him; they were indifferent altogether to him and to his birth. The star that leads to Christ must always be going to Christ. Men are far better drawn by example than driven by exhortation. Personal piety alone can be owned of God to the production of piety in others. "Go," say you; but they will not go. Say "come," and lead the way: then they will come. Do not the sheep follow the shepherd? He who would lead others to Christ should go before them himself, having his face towards his Master, his eyes towards his Master, his steps toward his Master, his heart towards his Master. We are so to live that we may without boasting exhort those around us to have us for an example. Oh, that all who think themselves to be stars would themselves diligently move towards the Lord Jesus. The star in the east led wise men to Christ because it went that way itself: there is a wisdom in example which truly wise men are quick to perceive. This star had such an influence upon the chosen men that they could not but follow it: it charmed them across the desert. Such a charm may reside in you and in me, and we may exercise a powerful ministry over many hearts, being to them as loadstones, drawing them to the Lord Jesus. Happy privilege! We would not, merely show the road, but induce our neighbors to enter upon it. We read of one of old, not that they told him of Jesus, but that "they brought him to Jesus." We are not only to tell the story of the cross, but we are to persuade men to fly to the Crucified One for salvation. Did not the king in the parable say to his servants, "Compel them to come in." Assuredly he girds his own messengers with such a compelling power that men cannot hold out any longer, but must follow their lead and bow at the King's feet. The star did not draw, "as it were with a cart rope," nor by any force, material and physical; yet it drew these wise men from the remote east right to the manger of the new-born child. And so, though we have no arm of the law to help us, nor patronage, nor pomp of eloquence, nor parade of learning, yet we have a spiritual power by which we draw to Jesus thousands who are our joy and crown. The man sent of God comes forth from the divine presence permeated with a power which makes men turn to the Savior and live. Oh! that such power might go forth from all God's ministers yea, from all God's servants engaged in street-preaching, in Sunday-schools, in tract-visitation, and in every form of holy service. God uses those whose aim and intent it is to draw men to Christ. He puts his Spirit into them, by which Spirit they are helped to set forth the Lord Jesus as so lovely and desirable that men run to him and accept his glorious salvation. It is a small thing to shine, but it is a great thing to draw. Any cast-away may be brilliant; but only the real saint will be attractive for Jesus. I would not pray to be an orator, but I do pray to be a soul-winner. Do not aim, beloved brethren, at anything short of leading men to Jesus. Do not be satisfied to lead them to orthodox doctrine, or merely to bring them to a belief in those views which you hold to be Scriptural, valuable as that way be. It is to the person of the incarnate God that we must bring them to his feet we must conduct them that they may worship him: our mission is not accomplished, it is a total failure, unless we conduct our hearers to the house where Jesus dwells, and then stand over them, keeping watch over their souls for Jesu's sake.
Once more, the star which God used in this case was a star that stopped at Jesus: it went before the wise men till it brought them to Jesus, and then it stood still over the place where the young child was. I admire the manner of this star. There are remarkable stars in the theological sky at the present, time: they have led men to Jesus, so they say, and now they lead them into regions beyond, of yet undeveloped thought. The gospel of the Puritans is "old-fashioned"; these men have discovered that it is unsuitable for the enlarged intellects of the times; and so these stars would guide us further still. To this order of wandering stars I do not belong myself, and I trust I never shall. Progress beyond the gospel I have no desire for. "God forbid that I should glory save ill the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ." When the star had come to the place where the young child was, it stood still: and so should the gracious mind become settled, fixed, immovable. The wise men knew where to find that star, and where to find the young child by it: so be it with us. Oh, you that have hitherto been diligent in leading souls to Christ, never indulge for a single moment the notion that you need a broader philosophy or a deeper spirituality than are to be found in Jesus. Abide in him. Cry, "Oh God, my heart is fixed. My heart is fixed." There is nothing beyond Christ which is worth a moment's thought. Do not lose your paradise in Christ for another taste of that tree of knowledge of good-and-evil which ruined our first parents. Stick you to the old points: your one subject Christ, your one object to bring men to Christ, your one glory the glory of Christ. Standing by your Lord, and there alone, from this day to the last day, you will secure a happy, honored, and holy life. They said of Greece after her fall that it had become so ruined that you might search for Greece in Greece and fail to find it: I fear I must say that some professed preachers of the gospel have roamed so far away from it that you cannot find the gospel in their gospel, nor Christ himself in the Christ they preach. So far have some diverged from the grand essential soul-saving truth beyond which no man ought to dare to think of going, that they retain nothing of Christianity but the name. All that is beyond truth is a lie; anything beyond revelation is at best a minor matter, and most probably is an old wives' fable, even though he may be of the masculine gender who invented it. Stand you to your colors you who hope to be used of the Lord. Abide so that men shall find you in twenty years' time shining for Jesus and pointing to the place where the Savior is to be found, even as you are doing now. Let Jesus Christ be your ultimatum. Your work is done when you bring souls to Jesus, and help to keep them there, by being yourself "steadfast, unmovable." Be not carried away from the hope of your calling; but hold fast even the form of sound words, for it may be that in letting go the form you may lose the substance also.
II. Now that we have somewhat rejoiced in the light of the star, let us see if we can GATHER WISDOM FROM THE WISE MEN. Perhaps you have heard the "much speaking" of tradition as to who they were, whence they came, and how they traveled. In the Greek church, I believe, they know their number, their names, the character of their retinue, and what kind of ornaments were on their dromedaries' necks. Details which are not found in the word of God you may believe or not, at your pleasure, and you will be wise if our pleasure is not to believe too much. We only know that they were Magi, wise men from the East, possibly of the old Parsee religion—watchers if not worshippers of the stars. We will not speculate about them, but learn from them.
They did not content themselves with admiring the star and comparing it with other stars, and taking notes as to the exact date of its appearance, and how many times it twinkled, and when it moved, and all that; but they practically used the teaching of the star. Many are hearers and admirers of God's servants, but they are not wise enough to make fit and proper use of the preaching. They notice the peculiarity of the preacher's language, how much he is like one divine, how much he is unlike another; whether he coughs too often, or speaks too much in his throat; whether he is too loud or too low; whether he has not a provincial tone, whether there may not be about him a commonness of speech approaching to vulgarity; or, on the other hand, whether he may not be too florid in his diction. Such fooleries as these are the constant observations of men for whose souls we labor. They are perishing, and yet toying with such small matters With many it is all they go to the house of God for, to criticise in this paltry fashion. I have even seen them come to this place with opera glasses, as if they came hither to inspect an actor who lived and labored to arouse their leisure hours. Such is the sport of fools; but these were wise men, and therefore practical men. They did not become star-gazers, and stop at the point of admiring the remarkable star; but they said, "Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him." They set out at once to find the now-born King, of whose coming the star was the signal. Oh, my dear hearers, how I wish that you were all wise in this same manner! I would sooner preach the dullest sermon that was ever preached than preach the most brilliant that was ever spoken if I could by that poor sermon lead you quite away from myself to seek the Lord Jesus Christ. That is the one thing I care about. Will you never gratify me by enquiring after my Lord and Master? I long to hear you say, "What is the man talking about? He speaks about a Savior; we will have that Savior for ourselves. He talks about pardon through the blood of Christ; he speaks about God coming down among men to save them; we will find out if there is any reality in this pardon, any truth in this salvation. We will seek Jesus, and find for ourselves the blessings which are reported to be laid up in him." If I heard you all saying this I should be ready to die of joy.
Is not this a good day on which to set out to find your Savior? Some of you that have postponed it long, would it not be well to set out at once ere this expiring year has seen its last day? These wise men appear to have set out as soon as they discovered the star: they were not among those who have time to waste in needless delays. "There is the star," said they; "away we go beneath its guidance. We are not satisfied with a star, we go to find the King whose star it is!" And so they set out to find Christ immediately and resolutely.
Being wise men, they persevered in their search after him. We cannot tell how far they journeyed. Travelling was extremely difficult in those times. There were hostile tribes to avoid, the broad rivers of the Tigris and the Euphrates to cross, and trackless deserts to penetrate; but they made nothing of difficulty or danger. They set out for Jerusalem, and to Jerusalem they came, seeking the King of the Jews. If it be true that God has taken upon himself our nature, we ought to resolve to find him, let it cost what it may. If we must circumnavigate the globe to find a Savior, the distance and the expense ought to be nothing so long as we may but reach him. Were the Christ in the bowels of the earth, or in the heights of heaven we ought not to rest till we come at him. Everything that was necessary for their expedition the wise men soon gathered together, regardless of expense; and off they went following the star that they might discover the Prince of the kings of the earth.
At length they came to Jerusalem, and here new trials awaited them. It must have been a great trouble to them when they asked, "Where is he that is born King of the Jews?" and the people shook their heads as if they thought the question an idle one. Neither rich nor poor in the metropolitan city knew anything of Israel's King. The ribald multitude replied, "Herod is king of the Jews. Mind how you speak of another king, or your head may have to answer for it. The tyrant brooks no rival." The wise men must have been more astonished still when they found that Herod was troubled. They were glad to think that he was born who was to usher in the age or gold; but Herod's face grew blacker than ever at the bare mention of a king of the Jews. His eyes flashed, and a thundercloud was upon his brow; a dark deed of murder will come of it, though for the moment he conceals his malice. There is tumult all through the streets of Jerusalem, for no man knows what grim Herod may do now that he has been roused by the question, "Where is he that is born King of the Jews? Thus there was a ferment in Jerusalem, beginning at the palace; but this did not deter the wise men from their search for the promised Prince. They did not pack up their bales and go back and say, "It is useless to try to discover this questionable personage who is unknown even in the country of which he is King, and who appears to "be terribly unwelcome to those who are to be his subjects. We must leave to another day the solution of the question: "Where is he that is born King of the Jews?'"
These earnest-minded seekers were not dispirited by the clergy and the learned men when they came together. To the chief priests and scribes the question was put, and they answered the enquiry as to where Christ would be born, but not a mother's son among them would go with the wise men to find this new-born King. Strange apathy! Alas, how common! Those who should have been leaders were no leaders; they would not even be followers of that which is good, for they had no heart towards Christ. The wise men rose superior to this serious discouragement. If the clergy would not help them they would go to Jesus by themselves. Oh, dear friend, if you are wise you will say, "I will find Christ alone if none will join me: if I dig to the center, I will find him; if I fly to the sun, I will find him; if all men put me off, I will find him; if the ministers of the gospel appear indifferent to me, I will find him: the kingdom of heaven or old suffered violence, and the violent took it by force, and so will I." The first Christians had to leave all the authorized teachers of the day behind, and to come out by themselves: it will be no strange thing if you should have to do the same. Happy will it be if you are determined to go through floods and flames to find Christ; for he will be found of you. Thus these men were wise because, having started on the search, they persevered in it till they found the Lord and worshipped him.
Notice that they were wise because, when they again saw the star, "they rejoiced with exceeding great joy." While enquiring among the priests at Jerusalem they were perplexed, but when the star shone out again, they were at ease and full of joy: this joy they expressed, so that the evangelist recorded it. In these days very wise people think it necessary to repress all emotion, and appear like men of stone or ice. No matter what happens, they are stoical, and raised far above the enthusiasm of the vulgar. It is wonderful how fashions change, and folly stands for philosophy. But these wise men were children enough to be glad when their perplexity was over, and the clear light shone forth. It is a good sign when a man is not ashamed to be happy because he hears a plain, unmistakable testimony for the Lord Jesus. It is good to see the great man come down from his pedestal, and, like a little child, rejoice to hear the simple story of the cross. Give me the hearer who looks not for fineries, but cries out, "Lead me to Jesus. I want a guide to Jesus, and nothing else will suit me." Why, truly, if men did but know the value of things they would rejoice more to see a preacher of the gospel than a king. If the feet of the heralds of salvation be blessed, how much more their tongues when they tell out the tidings of a Savior. These wise men, with all their mystic learning were not ashamed to rejoice because a little star lent them its beams to conduct them to Jesus. We unite with them in rejoicing over a clear gospel ministry. For us all else is darkness, sorrow, and vexation of spirit; but that which leads us to our own glorious Lord is spirit, and light, and life. Better the sun should not shine than that a clear gospel should not be preached. We reckon that a country flourishes or decays according as gospel light is revealed or withdrawn.
Now follow these wise men a little further. They have come to the house where the young child is. What will they do? Will they stand looking at the star? No: they enter in. The star stands still, but they are not afraid to lose its radiance, and behold the Sun of righteousness. They did not cry, "We see the star, and that is enough for us; we have followed the star, and it is all we need to do." Not at all. They lift, the latch, and enter the lowly residence of the babe. They see the star no longer, and they have no need to see it, for there is he that is born King of the Jews. Now the true Light has shone upon them from the face of the child; they behold the incarnate God. Oh, friends! how wise you will be if, when you have been led to Christ by any man, you do not rest in his leadership, but must see Christ for yourselves. How much I long that you may enter into the fellowship of the mystery, pass through the door, and come and behold the young child, and bow before him. Our woe is that so many are so unwise. We are only their guides, but they are apt to make us their end. We point the way, but they do not follow the road; they stand gazing upon us. The star is gone; it did its work, and passed away: Jesus remains, and the wise men live in him. Will any of you be so foolish as to think only of the dying preacher, and forget the ever-living Savior? Come, be wise, and hasten to your Lord at once.
These men were wise, last of all—and I commend their example to you-because when they saw the child they worshipped. Theirs was not curiosity gratified, but devotion exercised. We, too, must worship the Savior, or we shall never be saved by him. He has not come to put away our sins, and yet to leave us ungodly and self-willed. Oh you that have never worshipped the Christ of God, may you be led to do so at once! He is God over all, blessed for ever, adore him! Was God ever seen in such a worshipful form before? Behold he bows the heavens; he rides upon the wings of the wind; he scatters flames of fire; he speaks, and his dread artillery shakes the hills: you worship in terror. Who would not adore the great and terrible Jehovah? But is it not much better to behold him here, allied to your nature, wrapped like other children in swaddling clothes, tender, feeble, next akin to your own self? Will you not worship God when he thus comes down to you and becomes your brother, born for your salvation? Here nature itself suggests worship: O may grace produce it! Let us hasten to worship where shepherds and wise men and angels have led the way.
Here let my sermon come to a pause even as the star did. Enter the house and worship! Forget the preacher. Let the starlight shine for other eyes. Jesus was born that you might be born again. He lived that you might live. He died that you might die to sin. He is risen, and to-day he maketh intercession for transgressors that they may be reconciled to God through him. Come, then; believe, trust, rejoice, adore! If you have neither gold, frankincense, nor myrrh, bring your faith, your love, your repentance, and falling down before the Son of God pay him the reverence of your hearts.
III. And now I turn to my third and last point, which is this: LET US ACT AS WISE MEN UNDER THE LIGHT OF OUR STAR. We too have received light to lead us to the Savior: I might say that for us many stars have shone to that blessed end. I will, however, on this point content myself with asking questions.
Do you not think that there is some light for you in your particular vocation, some call from God in your calling? Listen to me, and then listen to God. These men were watchers of the stars; therefore a star was used to call them. Certain other men soon after were fishermen; and by means of an amazing take of fish the Lord Jesus made them aware of his superior power, and then he called them to become fishers of men. For a star-gazer a star; for a fisherman a fish. The Master-Fisher hath a bait for each one of his elect, and oftentimes he selects a point in their own calling to be the barb of the hook. Were you busy yesterday at your counter? Did you bear no voice saying "Buy the truth and sell it not"? When you closed the shop last night did you not bethink yourself that soon you must close it for the last time? Do you make bread? and do you never ask yourself, "Has my soul eaten the bread of heaven?" Are you a farmer? do you till the soil? Has God never spoken to you by those furrowed fields and these changing seasons, and made you wish that your heart might be tilled and sown.? Listen! God is speaking! Hear, ye deaf; for there are voices everywhere calling you to heaven. You need not go miles about to find a link between you and everlasting mercy: the telegraphic wires are on either side of the road, God and human souls are near each other. How I wish that your common vocation would be viewed by you as concealing within itself the door to your high vocation. Oh that the Holy Spirit would turn your favourite pursuits into opportunities for his gracious work upon you. If not among the stars, yet among the flowers of the garden, or the cattle of the hills, or the waves of the sea may he find a net in which to enclose you for Christ. I wish that those of you who conclude that your calling could never draw you to Christ would make a point of seeing whether it might not be so. We are to learn from ants, and swallows, and cranes, and conies; surely we need never be short of tutors. It did seem that a star was an unlikely thing to head a procession of eastern sages, and yet it was the best guide that could be found; and so it may seem that your trade is an unlikely thing to bring you to Jesus, and yet the Lord may so use it. There may be a message from the Lord to thee in many a left-handed providence; a voice for wisdom may come to thee from the month of an ass; a call to a holy life may startle thee from a bush, a warning may flash upon thee from a wall, or a vision may impress thee in the silence of night when deep sleep falleth upon men. Only be thou ready to hear and God will find a way of speaking to thee. Answer the question as the wise men would have answered it, and say, "Yes, in our calling there is a call to Christ."
Then, again, what should you and I do better in this life than seek after Christ! The wise men thought all other pursuits of small account compared with this. "Who is going to attend to that observatory and watch the rest of the stars?" They shake their heads, and say they do not know: these things must wait; they have seen his star, and they are going to worship him. But who will attend to their wives and families, and all besides, while they make this long journey? They reply that every lesser thing must be subordinate to the highest thing. Matters must be taken in proportion, and the search after the King of the Jews, who is the desire of all nations, is so out of all proportion great that all the rest must go. Are not you, also, wise enough to judge in this sensible fashion? Do you not think, dear friends, it would be well to use all to-morrow in seeking Jesus? It will be a leisure day, could you spend it better than in Seeking your Redeemer? If you were to take a week, and give it wholly to your own soul, and to seeking Christ, would it not be well spent? How can you live with your soul in jeopardy? Oh that you would say, "I must get this matter right; it is an all-important business, and I must see it secure." This would be no more than common-sense. If you are driving, and a trace is broken, do you not stop the horse, and get the harness right? How, then, can you go on with the chariot of life when all its harness is out of order, and a fall means eternal ruin? If you will stop driving to arrange a buckle for fear of accident, I would beg of you to stop anything and everything to see to the safety of your soul. See how the engineer looks to the safety-valve: are you content to run more desperate risks? If your house were not insured, and you carried on a hazardous trade, the probability is you would feel extremely anxious until you had arranged that matter: but your soul is uninsured, and it may burn for ever,—will you not give heed to it? I beseech you be just to yourself,—kind to yourself. Oh! see to your eternal well-being. You are not certain that you will get home to dinner to-day. Life is frail as a cobweb. You may be in hell before yon clock strikes one! Remember that. There is not a step between you and everlasting destruction from the presence of God if you are as yet unregenerate; and your only hope is to find the Savior, trust the Savior, obey the Savior. Wherefore, like these wise men, put everything on one side, and set out now upon an earnest, resolute, persevering endeavor to find Jesus. I was about to say—resolve to find Jesus, or to die; but I will change the words, and say—resolve to find him, and live.
When we do come near to Jesus, let us ask ourselves this question, "Do we see more in Jesus than other people do?" for if we do, we are God's elect taught of God, illuminated by his Spirit. We read in the Scriptures that when these wise men saw the young child they fell down and worshipped him. Other people might have come in and seen the child, and said, "Many children are as interesting as this poor woman's babe." Ay, but as these men looked, they saw: all eyes are not so blessed. Eyes that see are gifts from the All-seeing One. Carnal eyes are blind; but these men saw the Infinite in the infant; the Godhead gleaming through the manhood; the glory hiding beneath the swaddling bands. Undoubtedly there was a spiritual splendor about this matchless child! We read that Moses' father and mother saw that he was a "goodly child"; they saw he was "fair unto God," says the original. But when these elect men saw that holy thing which is called the Son of the Highest, they discovered in him a glory all unknown before. Then was his star in the ascendant to them: he became their all in all, and they worshipped with all their hearts. Have you discovered such glory in Christ? "Oh!" says one, "you are always harping upon Christ and his glory. You are a man of one idea!" Precisely so. My one idea is that he is "altogether lovely," and that there is nothing out of heaven nor in heaven that can be compared with him even in his lowest and weakest estate. Have you ever seen as much as that in Jesus? If so, you are the Lord's; go you, and rejoice in him. If not, pray God to open your eyes until, like the wise men, you see and worship.
Lastly, learn from these wise men that when they worshipped they did not permit it to be a mere empty-handed adoration. Ask yourself, "What shall I render unto the Lord?" Bowing before the young child, they offered "gold, frankincense and myrrh," the best of metals and the best of spices; an offering to the King of gold; an offering to the priest of frankincense; an offering to the child of myrrh. Wise men are liberal men. Consecration is the best education. To-day it is thought to be wise to be always receiving; but the Savior said, "It is more blessed to give than to receive." God judges our hearts by that which spontaneously comes from them: hence the sweet cane bought with money is acceptable to him when given freely. He doth not tax his saints or weary them with incense; but he delights to see in them that true love which cannot express itself in mere words, but must use gold and myrrh, works of love and deeds of self-denial, to be the emblems of its gratitude. Brothers, you will never get into the heart of happiness till you become unselfish and generous; you have but chewed the husks of religion which are often bitter, you have never eaten of the sweet kernel until you have felt the love of God constraining you to make sacrifice. There is nothing in the true believer's power which he would not do for his Lord: nothing in our substance which we would not give to him, nothing in ourselves which we would not devote to his service.
God give to you all grace to come to Jesus, even though it be by the starlight of this Sermon, for his love's sake! Amen.


Monday, December 5, 2011

Diosdado P. Banatao: the Bill Gates of the Philippines

Diosdado "Dado" Banatao is the Bill Gates of the Philippines not only because of his true story of from rag to riches but also because of the technology he contributed to the world.

In June 15, 2011, the world wide news was that Diosdado Banatao elected Interim President and CEO of Ikanos.  Ikanos is a multi-million dollar company that provides semi-conductor and software products that deliver broadband to digital home.


Diosdado P. Banatao

Executive Chairman of the Board, Interim President and Chief Executive Officer

Ikanos Communications, Inc.

Fremont ,  CA

Sector: TECHNOLOGY  /  Communication Equipment

Officer since June 2011

Chairman of the Board ,  Inphi Corp

Sunnyvale ,  CA

Sector: TECHNOLOGY  /  Semiconductor - Broad Line

64 Years Old
Mr. Banatao has been the Chairman of the Board since August 2009 and Executive Chairman of the Board since April 2010 and previously served as the Company?s interim President and Chief Executive Officer from April 2010 to July 2010. Mr. Banatao has served as a founder and managing partner of Tallwood Venture Capital, a venture capital firm, since July 2000. From April 2008 to June 2009, Mr. Banatao served as Interim Chief Executive Officer of SiRF Technology Holdings, Inc., a publicly-traded company that was acquired by CSR plc in June 2009 (SiRF). From October 2006 to August 2007, Mr. Banatao served as Interim President and Chief Executive Officer of Inphi Corporation. Prior to forming Tallwood, Mr. Banatao was a venture partner at the Mayfield Fund, a venture capital firm, from January 1998 to May 2000. Mr. Banatao co-founded three technology startups: S3 Graphics Ltd in 1989, Chips & Technologies, Inc. in 1985 and Mostron in 1984. Mr. Banatao has served as Chairman of the Board of Inphi Corporation since December 2000. Mr. Banatao served on the board of directors of CSR plc, a public company traded on the London Stock Exchange, from July 2009 to October 2010, and SiRF prior to its acquisition by CSR plc, from February 1995 to June 2009, and Sequoia Communications from March 2003 to September 2009. Mr. Banatao also serves on the boards of directors of Alphion Corporation, Pixim Inc., Quintic Corporation, T-RAM Semiconductor, Inc., Wave Semiconductor and Wilocity Ltd., each a private company. Mr. Banatao holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from the Mapua Institute of Technology in the Philippines and an M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University. On June 14, 2011, the Company appointed Mr. Diosdado P. Banatao, age 64, as interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the company.

Source: http://people.forbes.com/profile/diosdado-p-banatao/72255


Wednesday, November 30, 2011

The Genius of the Jews

Jews are known to be world-shakers, future-shapers and history-makers because of their inherent genius.

We know famous Jews such as Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Steven Spielberg, Charlie Chaplain, Houdini, and Larry King.

In fact, most of the Nobel Prize Laureates are Jews.

There are famous Jews you may never know: Larry Page and Sergey Brin - founders of Google, Mark Zuckerberg - founder of Facebook,  David Axelrod - Barak Obama's top political adviser, Dorit Beinisch - Supreme Court President, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg - US Supreme Court Justice.

See the Jerusalem Post's list of 50 World's Most Influential Jews today at http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishFeatures/Article.aspx?id=175871  

Many have tried to explain the unique phenomenon of elevated I.Q. of the Jews.

"Ashkenazi Jews have a noted history of achievement in western societies.[37] They have won a large number of the Nobel awards.[38][39] In those societies where they have been free to enter any profession, they have a record of high occupational achievement, entering professions and fields of commerce where higher education is required.[40] For example, during the 20th century in the United States, Ashkenazi Jews represented approximately 3% of the population, but won 27% of the US Nobel Prizes in science, and 25% of the ACM Turing Awards (the Nobel-equivalent in computer science).[41]"

See also the following links:


One of the famous articles on the genius of the Jews was written by Charles Murray.  You can read it on-line here: http://www.commentarymagazine.com/article/jewish-genius/

The pdf file of Charles Murray on Jewish Genius can be freely downloaded here:

"The question has intrigued and baffled researchers for centuries. We all know people who defy the stereotype, yet it persists, demanding our attention. It leaves us wondering whether there is validity to the widespread belief that Jews are so much smarter than other people
But there can be little doubt that Jews have for centuries been substantially over-represented in many fields of learning and accomplishment. One must wonder, how could such a tiny, numerically insignificant group produce so many of the world’s smartest, most accomplished, and most influential people?"

Watch the following on Youtube:
100 Famous Jews http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJpykkXpJOM
Jewish inventors, contribution and ideas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjNvhOhyUNs
New version- Jewish inventors, achievements and ideas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mNIkSmB0oE

The World Without Jews - Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cke7Gv4Olsk
The World Without Jews - Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1qonX88Qmjw


Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Eduardo C. San Juan and the Lunar Rover (Moon Buggy)

The connection of a filipino mechanical engineer to a lunar rover has been a topic of debate for a very long time.  Many have doubted that a filipino can be considered as the primary designer of a vehicle used by astronaut on the moon.  Some considered it as an urban legend that a filipino can worked with a team of world-class scientists that made possible the exploration of the moon.  I listed below online evidences that will show some historical facts on Eduardo C. San Juan and the lunar rover. 

Here is the technical design of lunar rover submitted by Eduardo C. San Juan to NASA which can be found on-line in the catalog library of The Lunar and Planetary Institute (a division of the Universities Space Research Association, established during the Apollo missions to foster international collaboration and to serve as a repository for information gathered during the early years of the space program):

The complete pdf file of Eduardo C. San Juan's contractor report (100 pages) can be found in the NASA archive:

"The concept of a lunar rover predated Apollo, with a 1950s series in Collier's Weekly magazine by Wernher von Braun and others, 'Man Will Conquer Space Soon!', describing a six week stay on the moon, featuring ten-ton tractor trailers for moving supplies. In the February 1964 issue of Popular Science, von Braun, then director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, discussed the need for a lunar surface vehicle. In anticipation of this as-yet unfunded project, NASA officially changed the name of the lunar lander from Lunar Excursion Module to simply Lunar Module in an effort to make clear that the capability for powered lunar surface mobility ('excursions' away from the lunar lander base) did not yet exist.  The author of the general idea, design and form of the LRV were engineers Mieczyslaw G. Bekker and Eduardo San Juan. The final lightweight design, the new tires, and the folding mechanism of the assembly were the inventions of engineer Ferenc Pavlics."

"From the start of MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama-based Brown Engineering Company (BECO) had participated in all of its lunar mobility efforts. In 1965, BECO became the prime support contractor for MSFC’s Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering (P&VE) Laboratory. With an urgent need to determine the feasibility of a two-man LSSM, von Braun bypassed the usual procurement process and had P&VE’s Advanced Studies Office directly task BECO to design, build, and test a MTA for the vehicle.[8] While Bendix and Boeing would continue with work leading to LSSV\M concepts and designs, the MTA was vital for MSFC human factors studies involving spacesuit-clad astronauts interfacing with power, telemetry, navigation, and life-support equipment on the rover. Eduardo San Juan,[9] an immigrant from the Philippines who had led the earlier study by Hayes International, joined BECO to lead the LSSM MTA development.

Eduardo C. San Juan was born in the Philippines.  He graduated from Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT). He studied Nuclear Engineering at the University of Washington at one of the first programs in the nation in the 1950s. He was an naturalized American Citizen married to a foreign-born American.

Prior to this the Apollo Program, he was a troubleshooter for ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles); he would ensure that those that did not emerge from their underground holding areas could.
It was 1960 in Huntsville, Alabama. Along with the cultural and social heritage, Huntsville was a wondrous place. A place of possibilities.

After World War II, German V-2 rocket scientists were spirited away with one group taken to the USA and the other to USSR. The race for control of space was on. Wernher von Braun of Peenemünde fame and his Paperclip Scientists worked at Marshall Space Flight Center.

The 1960′s were exciting ". . . yet a turbulent time in history. John F. Kennedy became the 35th president of the United States; protests raged against segregation in the South and the Vietnam War; the American Football League was formed to rival the National Football League; FORTRAN was the standard computer programming language; and Chubby Checker introduced “The Twist.”

It was also the year NASA — a new federal agency dedicated to civilian space exploration — created the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama–and many test were also conducted at nearby Redstone Arsenal. Both E. C. San Juan and his wife worked at Boeing then not Lockheed. When he submitted the conceptual design for the Lunar Rover he submitted it via Brown Engineering, a company owned by Lady Bird Johnson.

Due to all the engineers and scientists in Huntsville, it was unlike any where in the South or the world. Because he was a Filipino by birth, this did not invalidate his conceptual design of the Lunar Rover and other designs at that time. The Lunar Rover was just one of many.

On one occasion, all NASA families, our family. assembled with all the other Paperclip scientists and their families. John F. Kennedy’s plane was landing and he gave a speech asking every engineer and scientist to do use their ingenuity, science, and talent–to do their utmost to put a man on the moon. No one ever thought that was not going to happen. It was a question of how well and when.

The mix of booster propellant and Saturn C-5 boosters would rocket the astronauts to make the lunar shot. This was the best team that our Nation could assemble. Many were vets of WWII, they knew application and theory. They knew how to design to build and manufacture things that worked.

Eduardo C. San Juan was the only conceptual designer for the Lunar Rover and the Articulated Wheel System. In engineering circles, the concept is a well understood step in a development process. This process is not unlike designing the information architecture and graphical user interface for a website.

You as the creative have a vision, translate that concept to prototype to share your vision with others. This was pre-CAD. All drawings were to scale and done on paper by him. After the concept was proven and the contract accepted (in the case of the Rover by NASA) small teams are pulled together to address the details and weight and redundancy of certain components are built by others. E. C. San Juan did not build the electronic components and subcomponents for the Rover or transmitters and receivers as he was not an electrical engineer.

During the final test demonstration to select one design from various submissions, his was the only one that worked. Thus, his design won the NASA Contract. His overall concept and specific design of the Articulated Wheel System was considered brilliant. Each wheel appendage was mounted not underneath the vehicle, but were outside the body of the vehicle and each wheel was motorized. Each wheel could work independently of the others. It was designed to negotiate crater ingress and egress. The other vehicles did not make it into or out of the test crater.

At that time, the Paperclip Scientists thought that the moon surface would have little or no traction, because in the 1960′s, they thought the moon was covered in 15 feet of moondust and debris. The mockup test site was covered in 15 feet of Styrofoam pellets. Difficult traction at best.

When you worked for certain companies or on certain contracts, you cannot own the patent on a design if it is stated in the contract. The company owned it or per the contract, the buyer or contract owner could patent the design. NASA provided an award ceremony; he was honored with others. When he left NASA, he had 300 engineers and scientists working for him. When he spoke at NASA, it was standing room only. The Paperclip Scientists liked his work and they liked him–and they like that he had a different accent than theirs.

In the 1970s at UC Berkeley legal ownership of code, programming, if considered functional but inelegant was considered technology and could be owned by the University. And if elegant, it was considered art and could not be patented or owned by the University.

He left the von Braun team in 1965, after working on many concepts for space shelters, the Lunar Module (called LEM), etc., he was not happy with the prelim design of the Space Shuttle as it supported a vertical takeoff and horizontal landing–thus doubling the structural stress and loads. He wanted a horizontal takeoff and landing. When engineers and scientists do not agree on approach, it is a technical matter, not personal.

Von Braun said that he had 100 percent success with vertical takeoff with the V-2 Program in Peenemünde and he would not change. It could not be debated. Hard to argue with the boss, so E. C. San Juan and two other German PhDs left NASA for Lockheed in Sunnyvale, California where they worked on improving existing missile technology. His employment followed his employment with Boeing, Brown Engineering, and NASA.

You will find not find any notation of Lockheed and the Lunar Rover. He created the conceptual design long before he was offered a position at Lockheed.  At Lockheed, he made the front page of the Lockheed Star. Big deal news having an internationally recognized engineer-scientist join Lockheed.

E. C. San Juan was hired to address increasing propulsion and thus missile trajectory initially. He had many other assignments over the years. One for example, after the Space Shuttle blew up; he was asked by the Lockheed, CEO and friend, Dan Tellup. to get the Shuttle payloads in space, he hadn’t done propulsion in years; he would often create the winning concept and then move to the next challenge.

Later, he was Chief Systems Engineer on other–multiple programs–for ground lasers and space-based platforms, etc. But our Country’s had a need and his talent was required, so he’d take a hiatus from his program’s to get this job done.

Special circumstance, special request, and after all it was for NASA. Once you are part of the NASA family . . . you are always family.

In addition to his passion for his work and his love for his family, he was a huge mentor to local students. He spoke at school science fairs and to children in challenged economic areas to encourage them to follow their dreams and not be deterred by anthing. He “reached for the stars” and encourage them to do as well.
We have original documentation and film footage of the Lunar Rover and also of the electric model built to demonstrate the Articulated Wheel System. As many of E. C. San Juan projects were classified during the last decades of his life, a low profile was preferred.

Many interviews and articles have been written about him and have been published since. National interviews. Many have claimed the title, but he did the work. Recognition from the Country, NASA, or the Smithsonian are not expected as many that built the Space Program and Apollo Missions have passed away.

Wernher Von Braun died in 1977 and Eduardo C. San Juan died in 1988.

- excerpted from an e-mail of Elisabeth San Juan (daughter of Eduardo C. San Juan)

See also http://inventors.about.com/od/filipinoscientists/p/EduardoSanJuan.htm


Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Edgardo E. Escultura: A Filipino World-Class Mathematician and Scientist

Dr. E. E. Escultura is a world-class mathematician with over fifty technical publications in renowned refereed international journals and conference proceedings.  He graduated Ph. D. in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin. His advisor is the famous British mathematician, L. C. Young whose parents, W. H. and G. C. Young, were themselves famous mathematicians.  He was a former Mathematics Professor at the University of the Philippines.  Now, he is a Research Professor at Lakshmikantham Institute for Advanced Studies and at Departments of Mathematics and Physics, GVP College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technical University, Kakinada Campus Madurawada, Visakhapatnam, India.

"THE HYBRID GRAND UNIFIED THEORY by V Lakshmikantham (Florida Institute of Technology, USA), E Escultura (Lakshmikantham Institute for Advanced Studies, India), & S Leela (Florida Institute of Technology, USA). In this book, an attempt is made to provide a hybrid grand unified theory to understand the universe, both in its micro/quantum aspects as well as macro/galactic aspects. The book describes a truly hybrid theory as it encompasses both the modern and ancient theories of the universe, together with its functioning at all levels of human comprehension. One of its authors, Dr Escultura, was nominated in 2005 for a Nobel Prize for his flux theory of gravitation. From then on this theory has been improved, clarified and is now known as the hybrid grand unified theory. This book deals with this new bold theory, unifying mathematics and physics, and answering some open fundamental questions and paradoxes in these disciplines. The book also describes what the ancient scientists knew about these matters."

“Most recent is the case of Professor Eddie Escultura, from the Philippines, a great mathematical brain who contributed something novel in the field of quantum physics. He was considered for the Nobel this year by the committee only to be rejected in favour of Professor Glauber. But the developments following this would reveal the sickness that has afflicted the Nobel committee. Professor Gerholms, an eminent physicist on the Nobel committee resigned from the committee to protest the dropping of Eddie. He goes one step further. In a personal letter to Prof. Escultura, Prof Gerholms wrote as to what went on inside the committee room and named two prominent members of the committee lobbying for their candidates. Gerholms in his resignation letter wrote to the committee that lobbying is highly objectionable inside the Nobel committee. Bold man indeed!”

Here are the Abstracts and Summary of Publications on GUT,  its Mathematics and Applications of Dr. Edgar E. Escultura

This series of publications are the basis of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and its much broader extension, Grand Unification of Natural Dynamics (GUND). GUND encompasses macro and quantum gravity and unites all physical systems from dark to visible and organic to inorganic.

(1) The Mathematics of Singularities. Trans. National Academy of Science and Technology (Philippines), Manila, 1992, pp. 141 - 153.

Abstract. This is the initial development of the generalized fractal that
provides the essential mathematics for the study of matter and its dark and
visible components. It shows how a curve of any length can be shrunk into
an infinitesimal neighborhood of a point with its length preserved, the
essence of black hole formation. The paper paves the way for the
development of the superstring as a physical concept and the basic
constituent of dark matter. Its axial projection is a rapid sinusoidal curve.
Shrinking it towards infinitesimal neighborhood enhances its frequency and
raises its latent energy indefinitely. A black hole is massive concentration of
non-agitated superstrings that accumulates in the eye of cosmological and
atomic vortices.

(2) Probabilistic Mathematics and Applications to Dynamic Systems Including Fermat's Last Theorem, Proc. 2nd International Conference on Dynamical Systems and Applications, Dynamic Publishers, Inc., Atlanta, 1996, pp. 147 - 152.

Abstract. The paper characterizes undecidability and establishes that
Fermat's last theorem is undecidable. It proposes probabilistic proof for
undecidable propositions. Moreover, the paper has an introduction to the
solution of the gravitational n-body problem presented at the World
Congress of Nonlinear Analysts, that same year and published in Nonlinear
Analysis, A-Series: Theory, Methods and Applications the following year.

(3).Exact Solutions of Fermat's Equation (Definitive Resolution of Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT). Nonlinear Studies, 5(2), 1998, pp. 227 - 254.

Abstract. The inability to resolve this problem for 360 years is attributed to
the inadequacy of the underlying fields of FLT, namely, foundations, number
theory, the real number system and analysis. Their critique is undertaken
with special focus on Wiles' 127-page proof of this conjecture that bears all
the weakness of classical mathematics. The first major findings are: (1) FLT
is undecidable in arithmetic, the reals, and Rn, n > 1, (2) its underlying fields
are ill-defined and, therefore, FLT itself is ill-defined, and (3) the
characterization of undecidable propositions. It follows that FLT is not just
undecidable, it does not make sense in these spaces. Rectification includes
reconstruction of the real number system without the trichotomy and
completeness axioms. The new space, called the new real number system,
yields countable counterexamples to FLT proving that it is false. It resolves
all the problems, paradoxes, contradictions and unanswered questions of the
underlying fields except the Bieberbach conjecture and the Riemann

(4) The Solution of the Gravitational n-Body Problem. Presented at the 2nd World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts, Athens, 1996 and published in the special issue of Nonlinear Analysis, A-Series: Theory, Methods and Applications, 30(8), Dec., 1997, pp. 5021 – 5032.

Abstract. The existence of long-standing unsolved problem reveals the
inadequacy of the underlying fields, in this case, mathematics and physics. A
thorough critique of both is undertaken. The main weakness of mathematics
lies in its foundations stemming from lack of insights coming from recent
discoveries such as the sources of ambiguity and lack of clarity regarding its
subject matter. Its critique led to the reconstruction of the contradiction-free
new real number system with new elements that models basic physical
concepts such as the superstring, the basic constituent of matter, the concepts
of time and distance and our universe as a super…super galaxy. The main
critique of physics is the inadequacy of quantitative or computational
modeling (previously called mathematical modeling) that simply describes
the appearances of nature. Consequently it has left long-standing problems
unsolved and fundamental questions unresolved such as what the basic
constituent of matter and the structure of the electron are. The remedy is the
introduction of qualitative modeling (formerly called dynamic modeling) that
explains nature in terms of its laws. This was the crucial factor in the solution
of the n-body and turbulence problems and resolution of fundamental
questions. Their solution and resolution required the discovery of the initial
11 laws of nature that anchored the early formulation of GUT called the flux
theory of gravitation.

(5) Superstring loop dynamics and applications to astronomy and biology. Nonlinear Analysis, Series A: Theory, Methods and Applications, 35(8), (1999); pp. 959 - 985.

Abstract. The paper refines the fundamental physical principles of (4),
includes four biological principles and introduces (a) dark number as the
qualitative model of the superstring, (b) the mathematics of its conversion to
visible matter, (c) matter-anti-matter dynamics, (d) applications to astronomy
and biology and (e) the new nonstandard analysis. It provides, for the first
time, explanation of two recent spectaculars from space made possible
nascent stars and galaxies and (ii) the "cannibalizing" activity of giant
galaxies, including our Milky Way, that prey on their smaller satellite
galaxies. Also, for the first time, the paper links brain waves to dark matter,
provides insights on the functions of the brain, including learning, memory
and intelligence, and proposes therapy for control of brain malfunctions like

(6) Set-valued differential equations and applications to quantum gravity, Proc. 1st International Conference on Tools for Mathematical Modeling; published in: Mathematical Research, Vol. 6, 2000, St.Petersburg, pp. 58 – 69.

Abstract. The paper starts with the practical problem of solving differential
equation of the form
dy/dx = f(x), where f(x) has the forms,
f(x) – sinn1/x, f(x) = cosn1/x, f(x) = (sinn1/x)cosm1/x,
and n and m are positive integers and the functions have set-valued limits at
the origin. The notions of probability distribution over the set-values and the
integral with respect to it are introduced to devise the generalized integral for
set-valued functions. Then the integral is applied to calculations on prima
and photons whose axial projections are set-valued.

(7) Recent verifications and applications, Proc. 1st International Conference on Tools for Mathematical Modeling, State Technical University of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, July 1999, pp. 74 – 89.

Abstract. The paper reviews present verification of the flux theory of
gravitation in quantum physics and astronomy and applies qualitative
modeling (formerly called dynamic modeling) to derive the structure of the
superstring and prima.

[8] Dynamic Modeling and Applications, Proc. 3rd International Conference on Tools for Mathematical Modeling, State Technical University of St. Petersburg, Russia.

Abstract. The paper summarizes recent verification and applications of the
then flux theory of gravitation to the study of the Cosmos, the solar system
and other applications but adds a new element to it: the role of the brain in
the control of cancer.

(9) Quantum Gravity. Proc. Third International Conference on Dynamic Systems and Applications, 26 ‒ 29 May 1999, released 2001, pp. 201 – 208.

Abstract. Quantum gravity is the dynamics of vortex flux of superstrings
induced by primal flux spin. It is distinguished from macro gravity as
dynamics of fluxes of superstrings. Quantum gravity encompasses quantum
physics and extends its domain to dark matter. It explains the genesis of the
atom where the toroidal fluxes of the protons in the nucleus induce coherent
flux around it; the latter draws electrons into orbit, by flux-pressure
complementarity. Quantum gravity explains all forces and interactions of
nature at the biological, molecular, atomic and primal levels including
electromagnetism, matter-anti-matter interaction, surface tension, osmosis
and capillary action in the cells of living organisms as well as primal
coupling and formation of the atom. The main laws of nature governing
quantum gravity are energy conservation, flux compatibility and flux-lowpressure

(10) Turbulence: Theory, Verification and Applications. Proc. 3rd World Congress of Nonlinear Analyst, Catania, 2000, published in the special issue of Nonlinear Analysis, Series A: Theory, Methods and Applications, 47(2001), pp. 5955 – 5966.

Abstract. The paper poses the turbulence problem: given the standard
dynamics find a model that has predictive capability with respect to its
internal and external dynamics and future state. The desired model is the
theory of turbulence, as subtheory of FTG, anchored on 12 of its
fundamental principles. The theory is applied to the study of earthquake,
volcanic activity, tornado, typhoon and lightning. The major results are as
(1) Solves the turbulence problem and explains the dynamics of earthly
(2) Establishes correlation between solar eclipse, earthquakes and volcanic
(3) Provides the basis for generating the technology to terminate tornado,
control typhoon partially and monitor seismic and volcanic activity that can
be the basis for prediction.
(4) Establishes the dynamic relationship between under-ocean volcanic
activity, El Niño, typhoon and drought.

(11) Chaos, Turbulence and Fractal. Indian J. Pure and Applied Mathematics, 32(10), pp. 1539 – 1551. (In the original paper this article is incorrectly titled, The flux theory of gravitation IV: The theory of intelligence and evolution).

Abstract. The turbulence problem in (9) is generalized to the modeling
problem: find a model for a physical system that has predictive capability on
its internal, external and future states. The paper starts with a criticism of
computational modeling namely:
(1) Computational model is static and unaffected by and not sensitive to
emerging boundary conditions including interaction with other dynamic
(2) It simply describes superficial dynamics but lacks predictive capability;
(3) Computation on the model simply reveals behavior of the mathematical
space the model belongs to and has nothing to do with the physical dynamic
system it models; in general computation, provides insights on differential
equations and the real numbers;
(4) Local behavior, especially, at micro scale has no causal relationship with
global behavior; for instance, the second law of thermodynamics that
predicts increasing entropy for closed physical system is valid only locally;
our universe has moved from the chaos of the Big Bang to the high level of
order we now enjoy including biological order; therefore, the first law of
thermodynamics is reversed globally.
(5) A differential equation which is indispensable in quantitative modeling
and its solution have only local validity, a basic principle in the theory of
differential equations. Conventional modeling is inadequate for dealing with
ambiguous sets including chaos, turbulence and fractal; it is shown also that
the real line is chaos. This paper identifies ambiguous sets and their common
thread of uncertainty and identifies appropriate approaches for dealing with
them. Among the ambiguous sets are large and infinite sets (being large and
small depending on context), small and large numbers, micro component of
turbulence, chaos and limit set of fractal. Deterministic mathematics does not
apply to ambiguous sets. This paper proves, for the first time, that the real
line is chaos. The alternative to computational modeling is qualitative
modeling, i.e., physical theory anchored on the laws of nature at both
fundamental states – dark and visible. Physical theory is not developed by
computation alone but is based on synthesis of the collective human
experience and accumulated scientific knowledge. The main tool for
qualitative modeling is qualitative or non-quantitative mathematics defined
broadly as the complement of computational mathematics. The paper also
summarizes the new mathematics required by FTG that, together with some
computational mathematics, e.g., Pontrjagin maximum principle, constitutes
its mathematical component.

(12) Theory of intelligence and evolution. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 33(1), 2003, 111 – 129.

Abstract. Ten laws of thought are discovered to explain such capability of
the mind as learning and creativity. It explains how values are formed
including mathematical reasoning.

(13) The mathematics of the new physics. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 130(1), 145 – 169.

Abstract. With the terminating decimals as base space subject to the axioms
of the so-called complete ordered field, R*, +, ×, without the axiom of choice
or its variants, the standard topology is introduced. The space is extended
and completed to what is called the new real line with the standard topology.
The reconstructed new real line, R*, +, ×, has two new elements called dark
and unbounded numbers. The domain of the additive and multiplicative
operations is also extended to the new real line, R*, +, ×. The new real line is
further extended to the new nonstandard analysis. The paper refines and
extends the counterexamples to FLT to a combination of countable integers
and new integers (now called decimal integers). The new arithmetic is also
introduced as well as basic arithmetic of twin naturals, new integers and new
nonstandard analysis. The integers and new integers are shown to be
isomorphic; in this isomorphism 0 corresponds to the equivalence class of
dark numbers represented by d*. This isomorphism establishes that both the
integers and the new integers are Peano naturals. It is from this class of
numbers that the counterexamples to FLT are constructed.

(14) From macro to quantum gravity. Problems of Nonlinear Analysis in Engineering Systems, 7(1) 2002; pp. 56 – 78.

Abstract. The paper summarizes the work that starts with the solution of the
gravitational n-body problem and proceeds to develop gravitation in the
large, that is, gravitation at the astronomical scale. It is extended to gravity at
the atomic and biological scales called quantum gravity to form the flux
theory of gravitation (now GUT); it explains surface tension in liquids as
gravity at the molecular scale. The laws of nature are refined and some of the
mathematics of the superstring and black hole excerpted from [14,15} are as
Theorem 1. A curve of any length can be deformed continuously into an
oscillation in an infinitesimal neighborhood of a point with length preserved
or even enhanced.
Theorem 2. Given oscillatory curve K of any length, real number e > 0 and
line segment AB, there exists continuous deformation of K into a fine
oscillatory curve inside some neighborhood of a line segment which
preserves its length k.
Theorem 2 generalizes Theorem 1 since the segment AB can be confined to
an arbitrary neighborhood.
Theorem 3. Given any oscillatory curve K, there exists continuous
deformation of K, with length preserved, into an arbitrarily small
Theorem 4. Let K be oscillatory curve of any length k and let b > 0, e = b/2
< K/2. One can shrink oscillatory curve K into arbitrarily small
neighborhood its length and amplitude satisfying │K│/2n+2 < │K│/2n+1 ≤
This theorem captures the behavior of superstrings and is the mathematical
basis of black hole formation. Since the energy of an oscillatory motion (e.g.,
superstring flux) is proportional to frequency and infinitesimal oscillation has
great frequency this deformation is energy enhancing and there is no upper
bound for the amount of latent energy in a superstring.
Finally, the paper has graphics of the well known prima, simple and
composite, including the quark, proton, and neutron, nucleus, basic cosmic or
electromagnetic waves and cosmic waves of Types I, II and III. It has also
graphics of generalized fractal.
The paper summarizes all previous papers by the author on gravitation. It
notes, for the first time, that the theory unites the three principal dynamics of
our universe, namely, macro and quantum gravity and cosmic waves where
the last dynamics spans the first two, and thermodynamics. It explains all
interactions of matter at the primal, atomic and biological scales including
electromagnetism, matter-anti-matter interaction, surface tension, osmosis
and capillarity action in the cells of living organisms. The paper also explains
all forms of clustering including the genesis of the atom and molecules and
stellar and galactic formation. It introduces three kinds of cosmic shock
waves: (1) Type I that includes brain waves, i.e., basic cosmic waves
encoded with information from neural cluster, (2) Type II cosmic waves,
e.g., shock waves from grinding of tectonic plates, stellar storms, stellar and
galactic core turbulence and hot volcanic lava flow (used in predicting
eruption) and (3) Type III cosmic waves, e.g., shock waves from nuclear and
thermonuclear explosions and cosmic explosions such as collisions of stars
called supernova and the Big Bang. Types II and III cosmic waves have the
same internal fractal structure but differ in orientation with respect to their
respective radius of propagation. The latter’s axis is normal to the radius of
propagation. The paper also formulates the nested fractal model of our
universe from the super…super galaxy through the superstring.

(15) Vortex interaction. Problems of Nonlinear Analysis in Engineering Systems, 7(2) 2002; pp. 30 –44.

Abstract. The paper develops the fractal-reverse-fractal algorithm that
allows one to locate, from any cosmological body, any other cosmological
body belonging to any cosmological vortex of our universe and, conversely,
from a vortex at any scale to the super…super galaxy, our universe.

(16) The new mathematics and physics. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 138(1), 2002, 127 – 149.

Abstract. The paper summarizes the new mathematics and FTG and some
astonishing results of mathematics. It has detailed critique of J. M. Henle’s
non-nonstandard analysis (Mathematics Intelligencer, 1999) and includes the
resolution of the unsolved problems, paradoxes, contradictions, puzzles,
contradictions and unanswered questions of mathematics, physics, astronomy
and cosmology except the Bieberbach conjecture and Riemann hypothesis.
Among the more notable problems, paradoxes and counterexamples resolved
and summarized here are: FLT, Goldbach’s conjecture, Brouwer’s
counterexample to the trichotomy axiom, Banach-Tarski paradox and the
natural or linear ordering of the new real line.

(17) Macro and quantum gravity, cosmic waves and applications. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 139(1), 2003, 23 – 36.

Abstract. The paper summarizes all previous results on the subject in the
Series on the subject and extends them as follows:
(a) Explanation of the accelerated rapid radial expansion of our universe
from FTG’s viewpoint.
(b) Verification of Hubble’s law in terms of the accelerated radial expansion
of our universe including an explanation of this phenomenon.
(c) Counterexamples to Einstein’s and Newton’s law of gravitation, namely,
cosmic debris such as asteroids and the thin rings of the larger planets of the
solar system.
(d) Lays down the cosmological history and destiny of our universe.
(e) Explains the primordial black hole that exploded as Big Bang as the
destiny of the core of previous universe and points to evidences of the
existence of universes other than ours.

(18) Dynamic (now qualitative) Modeling and Applications. Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Tools for Mathematical Modeling, St. Petersburg, 2003, 167 – 182.

Abstract. Axiomatizes turbulence using dynamic modeling (now qualitative
modeling) that explains gravity as part of its dynamics. It includes a
comprehensive explanation of why the Columbia Space Shuttle crashed on
February 1, 2003.

(19) Foundations of Analysis and the New Arithmetic. Nonlinear Analysis and Phenomena, 3(2), 2003, 13 pages.

Abstract. The paper reconstructs the real number system as decimals into the
new real number system without the trichotomy and completeness axioms
using the basic integers as building blocks (taking this as one of the axioms)
and well-defined by two more axioms – the addition and multiplication
tables of basic arithmetic. Taking the constructivist requirement that a real
number is well-defined only by its digits, that is, when they are known or
computable, we are able to build the new real number system without
contradictions and paradoxes. Among the findings are: the standard real
numbers (the decimals) are finite but unbounded (precise definition of
countably infinite), therefore, discrete, free from contradictions, have natural
ordering and enriched by the unique dark and unbounded numbers d* and u*,
respectively. This new construction suits the needs of computing, especially,
computer simulation, and physics since nature is discrete in view of the
recent discovery of the basic constituent of matter, the superstring.

(20) Dynamic Modeling (now qualitative) of Chaos and Turbulence. Plenary lecture at the 4th World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts, Orlando, 2004, Nonlinear Analysis, 63(5-7), 2005, e519-e532.

Abstract. Applies dynamic modeling to chaos and turbulence as part of the
standard dynamics and builds up the flux theory of gravitation as a general
theory of turbulence. It uses Hubble’s law to compute the present rate of
radial expansion of our universe which is 840 km/sec and its acceleration of
10−10.km/secsec. This is the rate at which matter in our universe, including
the galaxies is radially dispersing outward. The paper also explains the black
hole as massive cluster of non-agitated infinitesimal superstrings collected by
the eye of a macro vortex such as star or galaxy. Left alone, a superstring,
which is nested fractal fluxes of superstings, shrinks towards infinitesimal
superstring. This dynamics occurs in the calm, low-pressure region of the eye
of a macro vortex. It explains that a black hole does not suck matter; it is the
eye that nurtures and builds it up that does. Gravitational attraction itself is
due to the suction by vortex eye. The opposite dynamics is: when a semiagitated
superstring is hit by cosmic shock wave of suitable energy, it
converts to visible matter called primum, e.g., quark, electron and positron.
Furthermore, the paper reveals prototypes of technology that converts dark
matter to useful kinetic energy, electricity and magnetic repulsion presently
used to power magnetic train. (The values obtained here are based on the
corrected age of our universe – the original estimate of 8 billion years instead
of the current estimate of the age of our universe of 14.7 billion years.

(21) The New Frontiers of Mathematics and Science, Part I. Theoretical Construction and Resolution of Issues, Problems and Unanswered Questions, Nonlinear Analysis and Phenomena, Vol I, January 2004,1 – 26.

Abstract. The paper has the most detailed elaboration to-date of dynamic
modeling that led to the development of quantum and macro gravity. It welldefines
and explains ill-defined physical concepts and phenomena such as
quark, atom, black hole, dark matter and supernova.

(22) The pillars of the new physics and some updates. Nonlinear Studies, 14(3), 2007, pp 241 – 260.

Abstract. This paper summarizes the pillars of FTG, updates and uses FTG
to identify and rectify the errors of physics and highlights new applications
and explains the disastrous finite flight of the Columbia Space Shuttle. It
explains many puzzles of physics such as metal fatigue and corrects present
misinterpretation of certain phenomena such as thermonuclear explosion.

(23) The physics of the mind, accepted, The Science of Healing Outcomes. 

Abstract. This paper explores the physics behind thought and sensation and
its implications for mathematics and physics and science education. It
explains telekinesis and other amazing capability of the mind such as that
displayed by what psychologists call moronic genius who computes huge
numbers without knowing how that happens. Most of all, it describes how
information is encoded, how they are recalled to the creative-integrative
region for thought and creativity.

(24) The New Frontiers of Mathematics and Science, Part II. The new real number system: Introduction to the New Nonstandard Analysis. Nonlinear Analysis and Phenomena, Vol. II, January, 2005, pp. 15 – 30.

Abstract. This is the first formal construction of the new real number system
R*, +, ´, using only three simple axioms: (1) R* contains the additive and
multiplicative identities, 0, 1; and (2) the addition and (3) multiplication
tables of basic arithmetic, and its extension to the new nonstandard analysis.
Limit in Bolzano-Weierstras sense (which is ill-defined) is replaced by
intuitive limit, that is, representation of a decimal by its standard Cauchy
sequence and approximating any decimal to any level of accuracy by the kth
term of its Cauchy sequence. The new real number system is finite but
unbounded (countably infinite) and, therefore, discrete, has no contradiction,
has natural ordering and is enriched by the unique dark number d* and
unbounded number u* and the new integers (now called the decimal
integers). The integers are embedded in R* which rectifies the fundamental
flaw of number theory, that of having no valid axiomatization of the integers.
In the new nonstandard analysis, every function is discrete. This suits the
needs of computing, especially, computer simulation.

(25) Dynamic Modeling (now qualitative) and the new mathematics and physics. Neural, Parallel and Scientific Computations, 15(4), 527 – 538.

Abstract. Surveys the classical and new mathematics involved in the new
physics, i.e., GUT, and highlights the role of the new mathematics.

(26) The origin and evolution of biological species. accepted, The Science of Healing Outcomes (a medical journal).

Abstract. The paper identifies brain waves as the medium for the replication
of the genetic content of biological species. It illustrates intelligence and
organization and division of labor in lower species and their further
advancement and defense against predators and ruminants that pasture on
them in the case of plant species, e.g., plant species that produce toxins. It
points to sensation as the basis of intelligence that allows a biological species
to respond to the environment, survive and advance itself. It illustrates, with
many examples, how species protect itself from other species that feed on it.
It also points out that instinct is genetically determined and explains how it is
actualized in plants and animals.

(27) Extending the reach of computation. Applied Mathematics Letters, 21(10), 2008, 1074 - 1081.

Abstract. The paper applies the new real number system to discrete
computation and quantum algebra.

(28) The theory of everything. Journal of Nonlinear Analysis and Phenomena, Volume II, No. 2, July, 2005, 44 pages (the author’s submission for his nomination for the Nobel Prize for Physics, 2005).

Abstract. This is an expository paper that summarizes and consolidates the
new physics developed in the flux theory of gravitation. The theory unifies
all the forces and interactions of nature from dark matter through quantum
and macro gravity and cosmology. (This was this host’s submission for his
nomination for the Nobel Prize for Physics, 2005)

(29) Dynamic (now qualitative) and mathematical models of physics. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of Dynamics Systems, 2008; pp. 164 – 169.

Abstract. It provides dynamic and mathematical models of basic physical
concepts, particularly, the photon, quark, neutrino, electron, proton, neutron
and the nucleus.

(30) Basic physical concepts of the Hybrid Grand Unified Theory. Proc. International Conference on Recent Developments in the Mathematical Sciences and Applications, Dec. 25 – 28, 2009, GVP College of Engineering, JNT University, Vishakhapatnam, AP, India, 8 pages.

Abstract. Introduces the other inhabitants of our universe starting with the
superstrings and moving on to the prima, atoms, cosmological vortices and
black holes.

(31) By-passing Chaos With a Theory of Turbulence and Development. An article in the book, Finance Stochastics, World Scientific, London, 2001, edited by E. Perez, D. Bonzo (Eds.).

Abstract. This is the first axiomatic treatment of a new area of social
science, namely, development science. It uses the same technique in the
axiomatization of physics undertaken in the Series. Fundamental social
principles are identified to anchor development science. Based on this theory,
strategic positioning employed for the purpose of establishing scientific,
trade, economic and technological equity between the Third World and the
developed world, particularly, the developed countries. This is the strategy
for generating and accumulating tremendous accumulation of value to reach
the threshold for industrial development.

(32) Probability Distribution In Mathematics, The Philippine Statistician. 40. 1-2 & 3-4. 1991, pp. 47 – 56.

Abstract. Introduces probability distribution as a tool for integrating setvalued

(33) Qualitative model of the atom, its components and origin in the early universe, Nonlinear Analysis, C-Series: Real World Problems. 11(2009), pp. 29 – 38.

Abstract. This paper is the first qualitative model of the atom and its
components as well as its origin in our early universe. The atom’s
components – proton, neutron (with its neutrino) and electron – are built on
the prima, units of visible matter. Their qualitative models are obtained using
some laws of nature. They yield new information such as the mass of the
neutrino and how heavy isotopes of an atom form as well as the arrangement
of the nucleons. It clarifies some presently unresolved issues such as what
happens in thermonuclear explosion and whether it can be controlled to
generate energy. It also explains the wave-particle duality of the primum and
photon, metal fatigue, matter-anti-matter interaction and brittle and malleable
materials and reviews the early phase of the development of our universe up
to the formation of the first atom.

(34) Qualitative modeling for complex systems, Proc. 23rd International Conference on Operations Research, September 2009, Bonn, Germany, 10 pages (appears also in Problems of Nonlinear Analysis in Engineering Systems, in press).

Abstract. The paper introduces qualitative modeling for analyzing complex
systems and solving complex problems and explaining natural phenomena in
terms of natural laws. Its power is demonstrated by its role in the discovery
of the basic constituent of matter, the superstring, the key to the solution of
the gravitational n-body and turbulence problems. Qualitative modeling is
applied to the equally difficult problem of development using a similar
approach: discovering the relevant laws of society and production. The latter
includes laws governing creation, accumulation and distribution of value and
accumulation and utilization of surplus value. Then a theory of development
is devised for formulating a strategy for development of underdeveloped
countries. It notes that while the problem of underdeveloped countries is
underproduction, i.e., scarcity of social surplus, the problem of developed
countries is just the opposite: overproduction of commodities that cannot be
marketed leading to periodic disruption in the global economy called
recession or depression in its worst form. These opposites provide basis for
symbiotic relationship between the underdeveloped and developed countries
and devising a strategy beneficial to both based on advanced scientific
knowledge provided by the Grand Unified Theory to generate appropriate
technology as the principal component of development.

(35) The mathematics of the grand unified theory. Keynote address at the 5th World Congress of Nonlinear Analysis, July 2 – 9, Orlando, Florida, Nonlinear Analysis, A-Series: Theory, Methods and Applications, 71 (2009) e420 – e431.

Abstract. This paper surveys the mathematics of the Grand Unified Theory,
classical and new, and focuses on the construction of the new real number
system R*.

(36) The new real number system and discrete computation and calculus. Neural, Parallel and Scientific Computation, 17 (2009), 59 – 84.

Abstract: The paper points out the inconsistency and ambiguity of the field
axioms of the real number system and notes that the only clearly defined and
consistent mathematical model of the real numbers is the set of terminating
decimals. Inconsistency collapses a mathematical system since every
statement in it is contradicted by another. The inconsistence in the real
number system comes from the trichotomy and competeness axioms to
which counterexamples have been found To remove the inconsistency and
ambiguity the real numbers are built on the additive and multiplicative
identities 0, 1 and addition and multiplication tables of elementary arithmetic
as its axioms that define the operations addition and multiplication,
respectively. Then using 0 and 1 the terminating decimals are defined on
which the nonterminating decimals are defined for the first time (prior to this
the nonterminating decimals were simply arrays of digits most of which
unknown). The g-norm is introduced where the g-norm of a decimal is itself.
Then the g-closure of the terminating is the new real number system R* that
includes the nonterminating decimal and the set-valued nonstandard number
d* called dark number which is a continuum. Then the decimals are joined
together by the continuum d* so that R* is a continuum It is non-
Archimedean and non-Hausdorf but its subset of decimals countably infinite,
hence, discrete, Archimedean and Hausdorff. Highlighted in this paper are
the counterexamples to FLT that prove it false and the proof of Goldbach’s

(37) The grand unified theory. Nonlinear Analysis, Series A: Theory, Methods and Applications 69(3), 2008, 823 – 831. The paper is a contribution to the felicitation volume, special issue of Nonlinear Analysis on the occasion of 85th birth anniversary of Professor V. Lakshmikantham, founder of the broad and rapidlyexpanding field of nonlinear analysis and Editor-in-Chief of many renowned scientific journals.
Abstract. The paper is the first formal formulation and presents an overview
of the Grand Unified Theory, introduces the ten most important natural laws
and surveys the mathematics related to GUT’s development and applications
with more detail on the author’s recent contribution, the new real number

(38) The generalized integral as dual of Schwarz distribution, in press, Nonlinear Studies.

Abstract. The paper develops the generalized integral and derivative of setvalued
function called wild oscillation using rapid oscillation for
approximation and deriving the probability distribution of wild oscillation as
set-valued function for purposes of generalized integration. It applies the
generalized integral to calculation on the photon
(39) Global geology and oceanography. Invited paper, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, in press

Abstract. The paper develops the theory based on GUT and applies it to lay
down the cosmological history of Earth. It explains the reversal of the
Earth’s magnetic flux during its 25,000-year cycle and the regular reversal of
Indian Ocean current with the summer and Winter Solstices.

(40) Revisiting the hybrid real number system, Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems, 3(2) May 2009, 101-107 (co-authored with Bhaskar, T. G., Kovak, D., Lakshmikantham V.).

Abstract. The new real number system is combined with Ancient Indian
thought to develop the hybrid real numbers.

(41) The unified theory of evolution, invited paper, International Journal of Biological Sciences and Engineering, in press 

Abstract. Eleven laws of nature are discovered to update the theory of
evolution. Among the latest findings are:

[42] Genetic alteration, modification and sterilization and applications to the treatment of genetic diseases, accepted, The Journal of the Science of Heaibg Outcomes; 11 paages.

Abstract. The paper formulates the theory behind genetic alteration, modification
and sterilization based on the theory of evolution updated by the grand unified theory
(GUT). The key element in the updated theory is the discovery that the medium for
both the brain and the gene for doing their functions are brain waves, i.e., basic
cosmic waves encoded with the vibration characteristics of a living cell such as the
neuron or the cell of any tissue of living organism. The principal component of brain
wave is the vibration characteristic of the gene. It is established that the gene projects
brain waves that agitate and convert the superstrings in the cellular membrane to
molecules that form the tissues of living things. The gene is turned on to do this task
at the right place on cue from the environment there in accordance with the
biological law, genetic activation.
Then appropriate technology is proposed for treatment of genetic diseases such
as cancer, systemic lupos erythematosus, diabetes, muscular dystrophy and mental
disorder, e.g., depression, without injury to normal cells. The methodology is called
genetic modification; it uses a neutralizer gene to form a composite with the
defective gene that removes its symptoms. The neutralizer gene resonates with the
defective gene so that the brain waves it projects superperpose on the brain waves
projected by the defective gene to produce composite brain waves that do not show
the symptoms of the defective gene. In effect, a composite gene is produced without
the harmful symptoms. For cancer, however, a more appropriate and effective
treatment is genetic sterilization to prevent it from spreading to normal cells. Then
the sterilized cancer cells become harmless; they die in the normal turnover of cells.
Genetic alteration involves introduction of a gene that produces desirable
physical qualities such as the developed muscle of the weight lifter through the
beneficial application of the induced alteration law that says: the possible sources of
genetic alteration are: radiation (including the so called background radiation which
are cosmic waves), direct exposure to foreign gene, frequent, consistent and
sustained use of body part, chemical irritation and concentrated thought about and
pre-occupation with or craving for an object, living or not, during pregnancy.
Again, as in the previous papers, the methodology employed is qualitative

(43) Extended Geometrical and Generalized Fractals, Chaos and Applications, a chapter in the ebook, Fractal Classification and Applications, in press, Nova Science Publishers.

Abstract. Starting with classical geometrical fractal in the plane we extend
present classical technique of affine transformation for generating fractal by
admitting other self-similar transformations, e.g., taking mirror image of
generator, sliding over a curve and rotation, where finite generators are
allowed. Such fractal is called extended geometrical. Geometrical fractal is a
sequence of composite affine transformations of a geometrical figure. Affine
transformation is a composite of contraction and translation. We further
extend geometrical fractal by broadening self-similarity to apply to general
properties beyond geometrical such as branching property and circular,
sinusoidal and vortical motion with applications to quantum and macro
gravity and thermodynamics of the grand unified theory (GUT). We focus on
generalized fractal and its applications to quantum and macro gravity and
thermodynamics of GUT.
Since general properties are not always amendable to computation, the
main tool of the present methodology of natural science – quantitative
modeling that relies solely on computation and measurement – the
appropriate methodology for GUT is qualitative modelling that relies on
qualitative mathematics. Our universe is a nested generalized physical fractal
with itself as the first term down through its fractal sequences that end up as
tail sequences of superstrings in dark matter.
In view of the updated scientific knowledge provided by GUT, we
reorient the priority in verifying validity of physical theory. We take as
primary criterion for validity its ability to explain natural phenomena and,
secondarily, invention of technology that works which requires prediction.
Moreover, we clarify some natural phenomena and make some predictions.

(44) Mathematical Models on the way from Superstring to Photon (Coauthored with V. V. Gudkov, Professor of Mathematics, Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Latvia). Nonlinear Analysis, 3(2002), pp. 375 - 382.

Abstract. The paper applies FTG to the physical dynamics of prima
(elementary particles of quantum mechanics) and their clusters and
interactions. The prima considered are the electron, up and down quarks (the
second author uses right and left quarks, respectively, to stress the invariance
of toroidal flux spin and induced flux under radial deformation, translation
and rotation) and coupled prima like the neutrino, proton, neutron and the
nucleus of an atom. The basic mathematical model of a segment of
superstring is the helix as solution of the harmonic wave equation. Any
primal cluster and interaction can be modeled by suitable combination of
deformation, translation, rotation, reflection and attachment. The paper has
data on the tremendous latent energy of dark matter. For example, a cubic
meter of dark matter (vacuum of quantum mechanics) has latent energy
content of 1018 kilograms that is convertible to kinetic energy using
Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence equation. A fundamental physical
principle FTG is utilized here to suite the requirement of quantum gravity,
namely, the flux compatibility principle that governs primal clustering and

(45) The Helix and Other Optimal Configurations of Matter and Applications (Co-authored with V. V. Gudkov). Nonlinear Analysis and Phenomena Vol. III, No. 2, 2006.

Abstract. The paper provides both qualitative and computational models of
the common prima like the proton and neutron.

(46) Sustainable Economic-Industrial Development for Underdeveloped Countries (co-authored with Chandra Prakash Kamana, first author, and V.S.R.S. Sarma Salagrama), Proceedings, International Conference on “Accelerating Economic Revival Through Innovation and Reform” Feb. 5, 6, 2010, organized by the Department of Commerce and Industry, Corporate Economics and Management Studies and Women’s Christian College, Chennai, India.

Abstract. Proposes Strategic Positioning as the only strategy for sustainable
development of the Third World in the present situation (see the article,
Primer on Strategic Positioning on this website)

(47) Building Green to Attain Sustainability (co-authored with Chandra Prakash Kamana, first author, andV.S.R.S. Sarma Salagrama), Proceedings, International conference on "Emerging Trends in Engineering (ICETE-2010)”, 20 – 21 February 2010, organized by Dr.J. J. Magdum College of Engineering (JJMCOE) in technical collaboration with Cafet-Innova Technical Society, in Dr. J. J. Magdum College of Engineering, Jaysingpur, Kolhapur District, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract. Points the way to find the lynchpin technologies for Strategic
Positioning that can partake of the enormous global resources into a Third
World Country for its sustainable development.

(48) Building Green – Practices and Challenges (co-authored with Chandra Prakash Kamana, first author and V.S.R.S. Sarma Salagrama). Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Sustainability with Green Building Technology (ICESGBT-10), 15 – 17 March 2010, organized by the Department of Civil Engineering, Meenakshi Sundararajan Engineering college, Chennai, India.

Abstract. Identifies the advantages of green building technology with
respect to energy consumption, and comfort and convenience.

(49) Geometrical and Generalized Fractals, Chaos and Turbulence and Applications, chapter contribution to the book, Fractal Classification and Applications, in press, Nova Science Publishers, 53 pages.

Abstract. Starting with classical geometrical fractal in the plane we extend
present classical technique of affine transformation for generating fractal by
admitting other self-similar transformations, e.g., taking mirror image of
generator, sliding over a curve and rotation, where finite generators are
allowed. Such fractal is called extended geometrical. Geometrical fractal is a
sequence of composite affine transformations of a geometrical figure. Affine
transformation is a composite of contraction and translation. We further
extend geometrical fractal by broadening self-similarity to apply to general
properties beyond geometrical such as branching property and circular,
sinusoidal and vortical motion with applications to quantum and macro
gravity and thermodynamics of the grand unified theory (GUT). We focus on
generalized fractal and its applications to quantum and macro gravity and
thermodynamics of GUT.
Since general properties are not always amendable to computation, the main
tool of the present methodology of natural science – quantitative modeling
that relies solely on computation and measurement – the appropriate
methodology for GUT is qualitative modeling that relies on qualitative
mathematics. Our universe is a nested generalized physical fractal with itself
as the first term down through its fractal sequences that end up as tail
sequences of superstrings in dark matter.
In view of the updated scientific knowledge provided by GUT, we reorient
the priority in verifying validity of physical theory. We take as primary
criterion for validity its ability to explain natural phenomena and,
secondarily, invention of technology that works which requires prediction.
Moreover, we clarify some natural phenomena and make some predictions.

(50) The Big Bang and What it Was, Chapter Contribution to the ebook, The Big Bang: Theory, Assumptions and Problems, in press, Nova Science Publishers. 56 pages

Abstract. The paper takes as its premise the occurrence of the Big Bang, a
colossal explosion that gave rise to the birth of our universe. Then through
sequences of mathematical and scientific reasoning called rational thought
using the methodology of qualitative modeling the grand unified theory
(GUT) is developed on laws of nature which establishes what it was that
exploded. This is a new approach. In earlier development both the
occurrence of the Big Bang and what caused it were taken as premises.
In its present development GUT builds its pillars – quantum and macro
gravity and thermodynamics. Through the discovery of appropriate laws of
nature, GUT well defines its fundamental physical concepts such as the
superstring, basic constituent of matter; matter and energy; dark matter; and
charge and gravity. It also well-defines and explains other physical concepts:
primum, photon, matter-anti-matter interaction, atom, cosmic waves, brittle
and malleable materials, metal fatigue, turbulence, galaxy, black hole and
supernova along with the conversion of dark to visible matter.
The cosmology of our universe is traced from its birth at Cosmic Burst 1.5
billion years from the start of the Big Bang through its evolution to the
present as a super…super galaxy 1010 billion light years across and a local
bubble in the timeless boundless Universe and predicts its destiny as black
holes back in dark matter. The existence of universes other than ours is
established from available evidences. Then it is deduced from this
cosmology what the Big Bang was and what caused it.

(51) Our Fractal Universe and Applications. Invited keynote address at the 6th International Conference on Dynamic Systems and Applications, May 25 – 28, Atlanta, USA, to appear in the proceedings. 8 pages.

Abstract. The generalized nested fractal structure of our universe is
described with itself as the common first term. A common feature of every
cosmological vortex is the family of spiral trajectories that simply covers it
along which visible matter falls through and spins around its eye. The
Integrated Pontrjagin Maximum Principle is applied to find the equation of
such a trajectory and solve practical problems.

II. Books and Monographs

(52) Introduction to Qualitative Control Theory. Kalikasan Press, Manila, 1991, 151 pages.

Abstract. This is the first development of qualitative or noncomputational
mathematics applied to control theory. It focuses on the properties of relaxed
trajectories and makes slight improvement of L. C. Young’s integrated
Pontrjagin maximum principle.

(53) On the undecidability of Fermat’s last theorem, monograph published by the Press Center, University of the Philippines Los Baños, 1993. 40 pages

Abstract. The first broad sweep of the partial resolution of this problem
which establishes its undecidability, reformulates it as a problem in R3
provides the probabilistic solution to the reformulated problem. The question
of truth of FLT is not considered here.

(54) Introduction to Qualitative Control Theory, Kalikasan Press, Manila, 1991.

Abstract. Adapts qualitative mathematics and modeling (introduced and the
main contribution of this author’s Ph.D. thesis, The Trajectories, Reachable
Set, Minimal Level and Chain of Trajectories in a Control Systme, at the
University of Wisconsin) to control theory. It has also a slight improvement
of L. C. Young’s Integrated Pontrjagin Maximum Principle.

(55) Diophantus: Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (With Resolution of Fermat and Other Applications). Kalikasan Press, Manila, 1993, 156 pages.

Abstract. The resolution referred to here is probabilistic solution that says:
with probability 1, FLT is true when n > 2. The book makes a thorough
critique-rectification of mathematics including lack of awareness of the loss
of certainty in infinite and very large spaces in mathematical and scientific
pursuit. It introduces a totally new mathematical perspective. Several
counterexamples to the axiom of choice are given. The calculus of set-valued
functions is more fully developed and applied to oscillatory differential
equations. A general theory of fractal provides some of the basic
requirements towards the solution of the gravitational n-body problem. The
book has the first partial resolution of Fermat's last theorem as undecidable
in arithmetic, the reals and the Euclidean plane and the probabilistic solution
of the reformulated problem in R3. It points the way for dealing with
undecidable proposition (proposition having no deterministic proof): the use
of probabilistic mathematics. A critique of Wiles' initial offering of 1993
made it to the appendix while the book was in press. It is the first to point out
that Wiles' main error is lack of insights from recent discoveries in
mathematics such as characaterization of undecidable propositions and the
loss of certainty in infinite or very large spaces.

(56) The Hybrid Grand Unified Theory, co-authored with V. Lakshmikantham and S. Leela and published by Atlantis (a division of Elsevier Science, Ltd.), 2009; 185 pages. (Currently on the World Scientific
best sellers list since May 2009; got on the #2 spot on the list in July in all categories; #1 on the best sellers list in mathematics as of October 3, 2009)

Abstract. The book updates the foundations of mathematics and applies the
new real number system to develop the hybrid real number system. The main
chapter, The Grand Unified Theory, formulates builds GUT on macro and
quantum gravity using the new methodology of qualitative modeling. Then
both qualitative mathematics and GUT are applied to develop the theory of
turbulence and physics of the mind. The book concludes with an overview of
the grand unified hybrid system that combines modern and ancient scientific

(57) Scientific Natural Philosophy, an ebook in press, Bentham Science Publishers, 2010, 305 pages.

Abstract. The aim of philosophy is to provide a total view of an aspect of
reality, for our present pursuit, nature, the domain of natural science.
Naturally, that view is relative to the level of advancement of the field of
science concerned. The most important component of philosophy is
methodology for it determines the nature of knowledge that can be achieved.
For example, the current methodology of physics – quantitative modeling –
describes the appearances of nature mathematically in terms of numbers,
equations, functions or statistical trends. Thus, the knowledge it provides is
only descriptive. In biology species are classified on the basis of their
appearances, e.g., anatomical structure. However, this methodology has
limitations and left long standing problems of physics unsolved and
fundamental questions unanswered such as the gravitational n-body problem
and what the basic constituent of matter and the structure of the electron are.
The introduction of qualitative or non-quantitative modeling that explains
nature in terms of its laws not only solves and answers the long standing
problems and fundamental questions but also deepens our knowledge beyond
the appearances. It tells us how nature works and allows us to explain the
internal dynamics and interactions of physical systems. It also allows us to
devise technology guided by theory instead of appearances and properties of
materials. At the core of both methodologies are mathematics, qualitative
mathematics for qualitative modeling and computation and measurement for
quantitative modeling. Therefore, mathematics is not only a language of
sciences but also its indispensable tool for analysis. Consequently,
mathematics plays a major role in philosophy as part of methodology and we
shall devote a major part of this book to it.
Scientific natural philosophy is an updated philosophy of natural science
different from and an improvement of all previous ones because it is based
on major scientific development, innovations and discoveries during the last
12 years among which are the following:
(1) First and foremost was the introduction of qualitative modeling (formerly
called dynamic modeling) in 1997 to solve the 200-year old gravitational nbody
problem posed by Simon Marquiz de Laplace at the turn of the 18th
Century. It explains nature and its dynamics, appearances, properties and
motion in terms of its laws (natural laws). It is the complement of
quantitative modeling (formerly called mathematical modeling). The main
tool of qualitative modeling is qualitative mathematics and that of
quantitative modeling its complement, the combination of computation and
measurement. Qualitative mathematics includes this daily activity of the
mathematician or scientist: making conclusions, visualizing, trial and error,
thinking backwards, thought experimenting, engaging in creative activity,
intuition and imagination, negating what is known to find an opening into the
unknown, altering premises to draw out new conclusions and any technique
that yields results. It liberates the mind from unnecessary constraints and is
the key to productive research. Abstract mathematical systems such as
foundations, topology and the search for the laws of nature are qualitative
mathematics. It is based on rational thought and analysis, quantitative
mathematics on intuition. Consequently, qualitative modeling is also based
on rational thought and analysis, quantitative modeling on intuitions.
(2) Since qualitative mathematics has liberalized the search for information
for purposes of knowing nature and explaining its behavior and appearances
it also increases the chance of error creeping into physical theory. Error
includes contradiction, ambiguity, inadequacy and self reference. Therefore,
to avoid error we tighten the filter of admissibility in the choice of concepts
and axioms in the development of physical theory. In particular, we identify
the sources of error to avoid them.
(3) To solve a long-standing problem or resolve unanswered question we
find out why it defies solution or resolution and the first to check are its
underlying fields. Therefore, we go through their critique-rectification to
clear them of errors. This was the crucial first step in both the resolution of
Fermat’s last theorem [and the solution of the gravitational n-body problem.
(4) Qualitative modeling led to two important developments: (a) the
discovery of the existence of two fundamental states of matter, dark and
visible or ordinary matter, where the latter is directly observable and the
former is not and known only by its effect on visible matter and (b) the
discovery of the basic constituent of matter, the superstring.
(5) Qualitative modeling has also led to important discoveries in biology
aside from the biological laws. One is the discovery that the brain and the
gene have the same medium for doing their functions, namely, brain waves,
i.e., basic cosmic waves encoded with the vibration characteristics of living
cells. The main function of the brain is to control all body processes and its
secondary function is providing the venue for thought processes. The gene’s
main function is to produce the tissues of plants and animals in the cellular
membranes through the agitation of dark matter by the brain waves it
projects and their conversion, first to prima, then to atoms and molecules and
finally to the atoms and molecules of the tissues.
(6) Physical theory is a qualitative model of reality, in particular, nature. It is
a mathematical system whose basic premises or axioms are laws of nature.
Being so, any theoretical error is ultimately mathematical. While
mathematics, erroneous or not, is totally harmless and essentially useless in
the mind or its representation, mathematical error may have catastrophic
impact in the real world through the application of erroneous or absence of
theory. Therefore, we have given considerable effort to avoid mathematical
error by identifying its sources and avoiding them or providing remedy. We
cite disastrous failures in applications due to theoretical error.
(a) The disastrous final flight of the Columbia Space Shuttle, February 1,
2003 as being due to inadequate theory. In fact, in trying to explain why the
disaster occurred three new laws of nature were discovered. In particular, the
recurrent peeling of the insulation panels from the Shuttle when the
Columbia Space Shuttle Program was resumed after two and a half years of
suspension was never explained because there was no theory to do so. The
program was scrapped for this reason [34].
(b) The failure to make a breakthrough in plasma research towards
controlling thermonuclear reaction. After over half a century of this research
no significant breakthrough has been made.
(c) Research in particle physics in search of the basic constituent of matter.
Physicists have steadily raised the energy of the collider but they have not
found even a candidate for basic constituent of matter since all they found
are unstable elementary particles with half-life of split second. The basic
constituent of matter must be indestructible otherwise our universe would
have collapsed a long time ago. The large hadron collider in Cerne,
Switzerland was supposed to have been turned on last summer but there has
been no report on it so far. Like thermonuclear research this has been going
on for over half a century. Actually, the superstring has been staring at the
physicists since 1811 when Ernest Rutherford discovered the electron, an
agitated superstring.
(d) Cancer research. Geneticists and oncologists have been trying to
understand this genetic disease for the purpose of developing the most
effective treatment with the least side effect; this has been going on for a
long time but no significant breakthrough has been registered so far, a case of
lack of appropriate theory.
In each of these cases the culprit is theoretical error that includes erroneous,
inadequate and absence of theory to guide the research.
Although 6(b), 6(c) and 6(d) are not as catastrophic as 6(a), the enormous
amount resources, human and material, allotted to such failed research could
have alleviated the desperate conditions in much of the Third World.
(7) The 11 laws of nature discovered in 1997 required to solve the
gravitational n-body problem served as the initial axioms of the flux theory
of gravitation which was later corrected and named the grand unified theory
These are innovations, discoveries and advancement that distinguish the
grand unified theory, which we now summarize and call the new physics,
from all previous physical theories. It is much broader and more general than
what Albert Einstein envisioned which was to describe gravity and
electromagnetism by equations of the same form although this was modified
by quantum physicists who joined in to include the strong and weak forces of
physics in the unification. The grand unified theory that we now have is
stronger and much broader for it explains the forces and interactions of
nature and its appearances and, therefore, unifies as well the entire fields of
natural science. It raises the quality of scientific knowledge from description
of appearances of nature to knowledge of how nature works that includes
explanation of its appearances. Research is in progress to broaden GUT
beyond its pillars – macro and quantum gravity and thermodynamics – and
into the grand unification of natural dynamics where natural dynamics
includes interactions between physical systems and the latter broadened to
include all motions of matter such as cosmic waves, the synchronized
vibration of dark matter. This will not qualitatively alter scientific natural
philosophy based on GUT for there is no change in perspective and
methodology, only extension of domain.
All these developments are synthesized and integrated into scientific natural
philosophy. It is distinguished from all previous philosophies of science
because it is scientific in contrast to being speculative where the former rests
on scientific knowledge. In particular cosmology is no longer speculative but
knowledge provided mainly by macro gravity. Moreover, it is complete as it
provides a full account of the evolution of our universe from its birth at
Cosmic Burst to its destiny as cluster of black holes back in dark matter.
Every application of GUT to solve a scientific problem requires the
discovery of appropriate laws of nature to provide the solution. Thus, the
application of GUT to explain the disastrous final flight of the Columbia
Space Shuttle added three more natural laws to the theory of turbulence [23]
to advance it to the enriched theory of turbulence. In trying to understand the
role of the gene in the evolution of biological species and how it produces
the tissues of a living thing 11 biological laws were discovered to develop
the theory of evolution based on GUT. Five learning principles were also
discovered in the applications of GUT to investigate the brain’s functions.
This is an aspect of innovation in scientific methodology. In traditional
methodology existing knowledge is applied to solve some problems. Here,
given a scientific problem a theory is devised to provide the solution.
Therefore, in this new methodology a scientific problem serves as catalyst
for the advancement of science. It is clear that physical theory is the
embodiment of our knowledge of the domain of a field of natural science and
that without a theory we have, at best, a collection of information about it.
We have some new knowledge that enriches scientific natural philosophy:
(1) The laws of nature are transitory and their manifestation is simultaneous
with the respective emergence of physical systems or natural phenomena that
reveal them. For example, the biological laws that we now enjoy were nonexistent
immediately after the cosmic burst when only simple prima (a
primum is unit of visible matter) existed. They will all vanish as our universe
reaches its destiny as cluster of black holes.
(2) Our universe is a local bubble in the boundless and timeless Universe of
dark matter and there is ample evidence of the existence of other local
universes like ours. There are two kinds of local universes: ordinary resulting
from the steady shrinking of the superstrings that gives rise to nested fractal
sequences of regions of depression that, in turn, evolve into nested fractal
sequences of cosmological vortices of superstrings like the galaxies and
stars, and special universes like ours whose birth was triggered by a big
bang. A big bang is explosion of a black hole, the destiny of a previous
universe. Our universe was due to the explosion of a black hole, the destiny
of the core of a previous universe that created a super…super depression in
dark matter that evolved into a super…super galaxy 1010 light years across.
(3) GUT has brought us to the threshold of a new technological Epoch, the
epoch of GUT technology that runs on dark matter directly or indirectly.
Examples of the former are the magnetic train and the electric power plant
both of which run on fluxes of superstrings. Like the steam engine which
was invented before the development of the science of thermodynamics they
were invented before the development of GUT based on knowledge of the
property of the material used, mainly magnet. Therefore, they are considered
conventional. An example of GUT technology is the electromagnetic engine
for mass transit system. Its invention which is still at the research and
development phase is directly guided by GUT (the invention can only be
announced; details cannot be discussed at this time). Another example which
is still at the research stage (not even at research and development) is the
appropriate technology for genetic alteration, modification and sterilization
for the treatment of genetic diseases.
We provide selective theoretical applications of GUT and its methodology of
qualitative modeling that spill over into several fields of natural science and
its boundary with psychology – physical psychology.
Finally, scientific natural philosophy is materialist and focuses on
explainable physical reality.

In the Pipelines: An ebook, Symposium on the Grand Unified Theory, for
Nova Science Publishers; probable completion: 2012.

******* ******* *******

The following is an article made by Dr. Escultura which you can download in pdf format at http://users.tpg.com.au/pidro/Putting%20The%20Institute%20Of%20Mathematics%20In%20Its%20Place.pdf


In 2005 the Philippine Collegian published the article, STATEMENT FROM THE UP
MATHEMATICS DEPARTMMENT, attacking me personally for my work in mathematics and
physics the argument based on wrong information and ignorance of mathematics and physics.
Fortunately, the Philippine Collegian which adheres to journalistic ethics published my reply, TOTAL
IGNORANCE OF FUNDAMENTALS. This cannot be said of the UP Newsletter which published
the same statement but did not publish my reply revealing itself as a gossip sheet after all. My mole at
the Department told me that the Chairman tried to solicit signatures for the statement from its over
100 faculty members but got only 7 the reason it was published anonymously.
Then in March 2008 another online article, Personal Statement from UPD, was addressed to me,
again, attacking my work by repeating the same old futile arguments but this time focusing on my
resolution of Fermat’s last theorem.
Now, there is a post on a page in the WikiPilipinas website, again, addressed to me and my work that
repeats the same old arguments which I have already resoundingly demolished on many websites.
WikiPilipinas, by the way, has published online on the same webpage outright lies about Filipino
inventors and scientists who are long gone and cannot defend themselves. It labelled as hoax the
inventions of Agapito Flores, Eduardo San Juan and Fe de Mundo without any documentation
whatsoever. It made a blunder, however, by also publishing on the same webpage lies about me, the
Manny Pacquiao of Science and Mathematics with Teflon world academic stature. When I posted this
message in reply the administrator, J. Maguddayao, deleted the entire entries and blocked my
These online articles by the Institute of Mathematics amount to a tiny squeak behind the thousands of
articles, posts and commentaries on my work on several dozen websites not to mention my over 50
scientific papers in many world renown peer reviewed international scientific journals, keynote
addresses at world congresses and international conferences, books and chapters of some books. My
work has been extensively debated across cyberspace since 1997 and not a single hole has been
punched on it. All arguments against my work have been thoroughly demolished including these
feeble attempts by the Institute. Samples of my latest punches can be viewed at these sites:
(1) False Proofs, http://falseproofs.blogspot.com/2006/06/e-e-escultura.html
(2) Free Library, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/E.+E.+Escultura/Contributed-a274787
(3) http://scientopia.org/blogs/goodmath/2011/02/10/e-e-escultura-and-the-field-axioms/#comment-
(4) New Approach to Physics, under ISCID topic Brainstorms (5 pages):
(a http://www.iscid.org/boards/ubb-get_topic-f-6-t-000607.html
(b) http://www.iscid.org/boards/ubb-get_topic-f-6-t-000607-p-2.html
(c) http://www.iscid.org/boards/ubb-get_topic-f-6-t-000607-p-3.html
(d) http://www.iscid.org/boards/ubb-get_topic-f-6-t-000607-p-4.html
(e) http://www.iscid.org/boards/ubb-get_topic-f-6-t-000607-p-5.html
If these feeble attempts by the Institute are a tiny squeak, why take notice? One reason is to take note
of a new trick proudly discovered by the Institute: creating the link,
http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=User:Eescultura, to my article in WikiPilipinas with this
message (quoted verbatim including grammatical errors):
To whom it may concern;
I Edgar Escultura formally renounce my claims to have disproven Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT), my
claims that the real number system is flawed, and my claim that the complex number i is not well
defined. I also retract my claim that Dr. Wiles acknowledged my work was correct and my claim to
have been nominated for the Nobel Prize in physics, I have discovered that these were both cruel
tricks being played on me by people signing a guestbook on my website.
I would like to acknowledge the efforts of various bloggers and their readers for taking the time to
demonstrate the flaws in my arguments. Were it not for their genuine care and patience I would still
be defending indefensible claims. I also apologize to any people who spent considerable time trying to
understand my writing, I was wrong and am man enough to admit it.
I would also like to inform the mathematics community that the journal that published my work,
Nonlinear Studies, did a grave disservice to you all in allowing work so peppered with errors to ever
be printed. I apologize for myself and the irresponsible behaviour of Nonlinear Studies.
Finally to Dr. Wiles, I offer you my sincerest apologies. Your proof is and always was correct, there
were no “fatal flaws” in it as I so often asserted. I also apologize to you for trying to pass off obvious
forgeries as your writings. Most importantly I would like to apologize to you for ever attacking your
stature as a mathematician, my claims were not only false but also inconsiderate, I acted foolishly and
can only hope you can forgive me.
E. E Escultura Research Professor V. Lakshmikantham Institute for Advanced Studies and
Departments of Mathematics and Physics GVP College of Engineering, JNT University
This “apology” is, of course, FAKE. I NEVER POSTED IT and I DID SOMETHING MUCH
counterexamples published in my papers in several renowned peer reviewed scientific journals. It is
also discussed in my recent books, Scientific Natural Philosophy (Bentham Science Publishers) and
Hybrid Grand Unified Theory (Atlantis, a division of Elsevier Science, Ltd) .When I posted this reply
on WikiPilipnas website it was deleted but the fake apology was retained although edited and toned
down a bit. Still, it is even worse than libel. Moreover, my username has been blocked from that link
and I cannot post my replies. Only the administrator, J. Maguddayao, could have done these changes
in connivance, of course, with the Institute.
The abstracts and summary of my publications are posted on one of my websites, Grand Unified
Natural Dynamics, http://users.tpg.com.au/pidro/ (see also my other website, Grand Unified Theory,
http://edgareescultura.wordpress.com/) Most of my papers are being sold online (for instance, search:
escultura science direct elsevier) and several of my papers have made it to the top 25 most
downloaded papers published by Elsevier Science Ltd in its several scientific journals. The latest
confirmation of my nomination for the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2005, which was dismissed by the
message from the Institute in WikiPilipinas, is the announcement online of my new book, Hybrid
Grand Unified Theory, co-authored with V. Lakshmikantham and S. Leela, published by Atlantis in
March 2009 and distributed by World Scientific which specifically mentions the nomination. This
book was a best seller in 2009 among books of all categories in natural and social sciences distributed
by World Scientific. It made it to the #2 spot on the best sellers list in July, 2009. For the information
of the Institute some of my major achievements recorded and etched in internet archives are as
1. Disproved Fermat’s last theorem by countably infinite counterexamples, Nonlinear Studies, 5(2),
1998, pp. 227 – 254 (published by the International Federation of Nonlinear Analysts).
2. Solved the gravitational n-body problem, Nonlinear Analysis, A-Series: Theory, Methods and
Applications, 30(8), 1997, pp. 5021 – 5032 (published by Elsevier Science, Ltd).
3. Solved the turbulence problem in, Turbulence: Theory, Verification andAapplications, Nonlinear
Analysis, A-Series: Theory, Methods and Applications 47(2001), pp. 1539 – 1551.
4. Discovered the superstring, basic constituent of matter, Nonlinear Analysis, A-Series: Theory,
Methods and Applications, 30(8), 1997 (this discovery is the foundation of the solution of the
gravitational n-body problem and the grand unified theory).
5. Developed the grand unified theory in a series of papers since 1997 and consolidated in the paper,
The Grand Unified Theory, Nonlinear Analysis, A-Series: Theory, Methods and Applications,:69(3),
2008, pp. 823 – 831 5032.
6. Developed the new real number system in a series of papers and consolidated in the paper, The new
real number system and discrete computation and calculus, Neural, Parallel and Scientific
Computations, 17(2009), 59 – 84 (Published by Dynamic Publishers).
7. Proved Goldbach’s conjecture, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 138(2003), pp. 145 - 169
(published by Elsevier Science, Ltd).
8. Developed the generalized integral for set-valued functions, Proceedings of the International
Conference on Tools for Mathematical Modelling, June 2000, St. Petersburg, Russia, pp. 221 - 224.
9. Developed the generalized integral as dual of Schwarz distribution, in press, Nonlinear Studies,
invited paper.
10. Developed the Complex Vector Plane which rectifies the present defects of the complex number
system in the appendix to: The generalized integral as dual of Schwarz distribution, in press,
Nonlinear Studies, invited paper; it is also summarized in the ebook, Scientific Natural Philosophy.
11. Gave a keynote address at the 5th World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts, Orlando, Florida, July 2
– 9, 2008 (Sponsored by the International Federation of Nonlinear Analysts); on the topic, The
mathematics of the grand unified theory, published in Nonlinear Analysis, A-Series: Theory: Method
and Applications, 2009, 71, pp. e420 – e431.
12. Gave another keynote address at the 7th International Conference on Dynamic Systems and
Applications, on the subject: Our Fractal Universe and Applications, May 25 – 28, 2011, Atlanta (the
abstract is published online).
13. Addressed a plenary session of the 5th World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts on the topic, The
new real number system as the g-closure of the terminating decimals, Orlando, Florida, July 2 – 9;
this paper was integrated in the original paper, The new real number system and discrete computation
and calculus (see item 6 above).
14. Gave a keynote address at the 4th International Conference on Dynamic Systems and Applications,
on the topic, Dynamic and mathematical models in physics, Atlanta, USA, April 30 – May 2, 2007
(the abstract is online).
15. Gave a keynote address at the 5,th International Conference on Neural, Parallel and Scientific
15. Introduced the new scientific methodology of qualitative modelling as the main contribution of
my Ph.D. Thesis, The trajectories, reachable set, minimal levels and chains of trajectories of a control
system, at the University of Wisconsin, 1970; it was applied to physics for the first time to solve the
gravitational n-body problem, 1997.
16. Made the first qualitative model of the atom in the paper, Qualitative model of the atom, its
components and origin in the early universe, Proc. 5th World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts, and
published by, Nonlinear Analysis, B-Series: Real World Applications, 2009, 11, pp. 29 – 38
(published by Elsevier Science, Ltd).
17. Developed the generalized fractal in the paper, Extended geometrical and generalized fractal,
chaos and turbulence, a chapter to an ebook, Fractal Classification and Applications, in press, Nova
Science Publishers.
18. Provided the first full explanation of the Big Bang in the paper, The Big Bang and What It Was, a
chapter in the ebook, The Big Bang: Theory, Assumptions and Problems, in press, Nova Science
The other reason for this article is to identify the sources of frustration that led to this futile and
desperate action by the Institute and provide insights on why the Institute stooped to ground level by
posting the fake apology quoted above. The brief history of the Institute below and its present status
sheds light on this strange behaviour.
(1) In 1986 I returned from the US after an absence of 15 years due to the political turmoil in the
Philippines during that period and re-joined the Department of Mathematics as Associate Professor.
(2) Eager to advance mathematics in the country I proposed in 1988 the conversion of the Department
from a purely teaching department to an Institute with stress on research.
(3) This proposal did not sit well with the leadership for obvious reason: no one else was doing
research at that time and the cloud of insecurity loomed large over it. The fall out: my dismissal from
the Department by denying tenure followed by sustained campaign of vilification that continues to
this day.
(4) What is the score? The Institute’s website reveals the following information:
(a) The Institute has 10 full professors, 7 associate professors, 9 assistant professors, one adjunct
professor, 56 instructors and many lecturers.
PUBLICATION IN MATHEMATICS. The adjunct professor has publications in applied mathematics
which is commendable but not in mathematics.
(c) There are 20 papers by the adjunct professor and graduate students (with co-authors abroad) on the
applications of mathematics to other fields such as biology and computer science. They are also
commendable contributions to the fields of application of mathematics but not to mathematics. In
other words, after having enjoyed generous research grants as an institute, the Institute of
Mathematics has not produced even a single paper in mathematics during all those years. (It would be
more appropriate for this unit of the University to call itself a Department of Applied Mathematics;
ironically, it tries to train mathematicians and claims to be the leader in mathematical research)
In contrast, both the Marine Science Institute and the National Institute of Physics have hundreds of
publications each in per reviewed scientific international journals followed by the Institute of Biology
that has also substantial publications. The other institutes do not have publications pages on their
websites but I know some well published colleagues there except the Institute of Mathematics.
Item (4) above explains why the Institute has all the time to carry on this vilification campaign during
the last 23 years.
This candid look at the Institute is not washing dirty linen in public since the Institute’s website is
viewed worldwide. Rather, it poses a challenge for the College: What can be done to lift the only
Institute that rides on its prestige but failed to deliver?
If I had a glass roof over my head I would not push my luck but keep away from trouble.
(When this article was first published online the Institute website’s publications page closed down
with the sign, “Under Construction”.
The Institute of Mathematics is at it Again
The Institute of Mathematics has posted its 4rth anonymous statement since 2005 (URL:
http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Edgar_Escultura) attacking me personally and my work based
on misinformation and ignorance of mathematics, physics and mathematical issues. The statement
must have been authorized by its Director, Dr. Jose Balmaceda, if he himself is not its author. At any
rate, he takes full responsibility for it as IM director. The message replaces an earlier one in this
website of WikiPilipinas that labelled as hoaxes the inventions and scientific discoveries of Agapito
Flores, Eduardo San Juan, Fe de Mundo and my scientific discoveries without any documentation
whatsoever. It was deleted and replaced by this 4rth IM statement only after I pointed out its libellous
nature. The 3rd anonymous IM statement has likewise been deleted as well as a fake apology linked
to this website.
The reason for the anonymity is quite obvious: Dr. Balmaceda is not a mathematician (i.e., he has no
publication in any of the peer reviewed international scientific or mathematical journals whatsoever)
but pretends to know mathematics by commenting on mathematical issues he does not understand
(e.g. he thinks peer review is done by bloggers, view URL:
http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Edgar_Escultura). Thus, he is, objectively, an impostor
and a discredit to the University of the Philippines where he occupies such a high position.
I could have ignored this message since it does not make a dent on my stature as a mathematician and
physicist of world renown based on my over fifty peer-reviewed scientific articles, books and keynote
addresses at international scientific conferences many of which monumental such as (1) the solution
of the 200-year-old gravitational n-body problem, (2) The development of the grand unified theory (a
project that Albert Einstein proposed over 70 years ago but failed to carry out), (3) disproof of the
360-year-old Fermat’s conjecture known as Fermat’s last theorem, (4) my proof of the 250-year-old
Goldbach’s conjecture (the proof is in my article, The new real number system and discrete
computation and calculus, Neural, Parallel and Scientific Computations, 2009, 17, pp. 59 – 84) and
my ebook, Scientific Natural Philosophy (my publications are listed on my website,
http://users.tpg.com.au/pidro/, under the article Abstracts and Summary of Publications) but I
responded to all challenges across cyberspace including those raised by the IM statements to share the
discussion with amateurs and mathematics and physics teachers. (This opens up a new era in
mathematics where mathematical and scientific results are discussed openly so that hoaxes can no
longer stand or errors hide for a long time). Not a single mathematician or physicist has ever refuted
my work.
The Nonsense of Dr. Jose Balmaceda
An excerpt from a webpage of WiikiPilipinas,
A Proof that d* = 0
Dr. Escultura defines his 'dark number' d* as d* = 1 - .9999999... (where .999999.... is a never ending
string of 9's after the decimal place). He also claims that d* > 0, so this 'dark number' is NOT zero
accordind to Escultura. So we will begin with two simple legal equations, then subtract the second
equation from the first and examine the result. So as not to confuse the * in (d*) with the
multiplication sign (*), in the following equations we will write D in place of d*, that is D = d* = (1 -
(1) 10*(D) = 10*(1 - .999999..) = 10 - 9.999999...
(2) 1*(D) = 1*(1 - .999999...) = 1 - .999999...
Now we subtract equation (2) from equation (1):
10*(D) - 1*(D) = (10 - 9.999999...) - (1 - .999999...)
= 10 - 9.999999... - 1 + .999999...
= (10 - 1) - (9.999999... - .999999...) = 9 - 9.000000... = 0
Also we have
10*(D) - 1*(D) = (10 - 1) * D = 9*D.
So now we have,
9*D = 0 (by equating the results of the above two equations)
D = 0/9 = D = 0
Thus we have proven that in fact if we accept this 'dark number' d*, then it must be the case that d* =
0. However, Escultura explicitly claims that d* > 0.
A Proof that .999999... = 1
It is possible that some people may not be comfortable with the fact that .999999.... = 1. It may seem
at first that .999999... is strictly less than 1, however this is a peculiarity of how we write out numbers,
and I assure you it is true. As above we will start with two perfectly legal equations and again subtract
one from the other to see where it leads.
(1) 10*(.999999...) = 9.999999...
(2) 1*(.999999...) = .999999...
Now we subtract equation (2) from equation (1)
10*(.999999...) - 1*(.999999...) = 9.999999... - .999999... = 9.000000...
Also we have,
10*(.999999...) - 1*(.999999...) = (10 - 1)*(.999999...) = 9*(.999999...).
So now we have,
9*(.999999...) = 9.000000... (by equating the results above two),
(.999999...) = (9.000000...)/9
.999999... = 9/9 (clearly 9.000000... = 9)
.999999... = 1
Thus .999999... may appear at first to be a number smaller that 1, it is in fact equal to 1. There is
nothing 'wrong' with this, it is just a quirk of the decimal system we use to write our numbers. This
allows us to quickly show that d* = 0, as in the following proof:
d* = (1 - .999999...) = (1 - 1) (since we now know that .999... = 1) = 0.
Let me just comment on two of the many nonsense of these "proofs".
1) Proof of d* = 0.
The equation D = d* = (1 - .999999...) is ill -defined, nonsense, IN THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
because all nonterminating decimals including .99... is ill-defined there and do not belong to it (they
are well defined in the new real number system). Therefore, the equations,
(1) 10*(D) = 10*(1 - .999999..) = 10 - 9.999999...
(2) 1*(D) = 1*(1 - .999999...) = 1 - .999999...
are nonsense because they apply multiplication and subtraction, the inverse of the addition, which are
binary operations of the real number system, to numbers that do not belong to it. Consequently, the
whole "proof" is total nonsense.
In particular, one cannot apply addition and multiplication (as binary operations IN THE REAL
NUMBER SYSTEM) precisely because they are ill-defined in the real number system. Try, for
instance, adding sqrt2 and sqrt3 and I’ll bet my life that no one can do it. It can be approximated by
some real number but that is not the sum. However, it can be done in the new real number system
because nonterminating decimals are well defined.
2) A Proof that .999999... = 1
The comment in 1) applies as well to the equations,
(1) 10*(D) = 10*(1 - .999999..) = 10 - 9.999999...
(2) 1*(D) = 1*(1 - .999999...) = 1 - .999999...,
which combine a mix of elements NOT BELONGING TO THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM in a set
of binary operations IN THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM. Thus, the proof is also nonsense.
Such sloppy mathematics could not have come from a true mathematician. Both errors are quite basic
and reveal utter ignorance of the fundamentals of mathematics. This is a problem peculiar to amateurs
who know only mechanical manipulation of symbols but are ignorant of precise mathematical
reasoning and deep analysis. Moreover, it appears that Dr. Balmaceda is a new comer to internet
mathematics forums where I have posted many, many responses to hundreds of bloggers including my
responses to ALL the points being raised here..
I could have referred Dr. Balmaceda to my original work but, not being a mathematician, i.e., having
no publication in any peer reviewed international journal, he would neither understand my work nor
know such journals. He does not even know which journals are peer reviewed and who the
mathematicians are and that is understandable.
This tit-for-tat with me is an exercise in futility for Dr. Balmaceda, although it wastes my time, and
works to his disadvantage. For, it only reveals more and more (1) my achievements as a
mathematician and physicist of world renown and (2) his true status as an impostor parading as a
mathematician. Remember that there is a light year of difference between a mathematician and a
mathematics teacher.